Artemisia argyi is a valuable traditional medicinal plant in Asia. The essential oil from its leaves is rich in terpenoids and has been used to enhance health and well-being. In China, the market scale of industries related to A. argyi has attained tens of billions of Chinese Yuan. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family is one of the largest transcription factors families in plants that plays crucial roles in diverse biological processes and is an essential regulatory component of terpenoid biosynthesis. However, the bHLH TFs and their regulatory roles in A. argyi remain unknown. Here, 53 AarbHLH genes were identified from the transcriptome of A. argyi and were classified into 15 subfamilies based on the classification of bHLH proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MEME analysis showed that the conserved motif 1 and motif 2 constituted the most conserved bHLH domain and distributed in most AarbHLH proteins. Additionally, integrated analysis of the expression profiles of AarbHLH genes and the contents of targeted terpenoids in different tissues group and JA-treated group were performed. Eleven up-regulated AarbHLHs and one down-regulated AarbHLH were screened as candidate genes that may participate in the regulation of terpenoid biosynthesis (TPS-AarbHLHs). Correlation analysis between gene expression and terpenoid contents indicated that the gene expression of these 12 TPS-AarbHLHs was significantly correlated with the content changes of 1,8-cineole or β-caryophyllene. Protein–protein interaction networks further illustrated that these TPS-AarbHLHs might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in A. argyi. This finding provides a basis to further investigate the regulation mechanism of AarbHLH genes in terpenoid biosynthesis, and will be helpful to improve the quality of A. argyi.
Belonging to the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family, the enzyme encoded by coactivator associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) catalyzes the methylation of protein arginine residues, especially acts on histones and other chromatin related proteins, which is essential in regulating gene expression. Beyond its well-established involvement in the regulation of transcription, recent studies have revealed a novel role of CARM1 in tumorigenesis and development, but there is still a lack of systematic understanding of CARM1 in human cancers. An integrated analysis of CARM1 in pan-cancer may contribute to further explore its prognostic value and potential immunological function in tumor therapy.
Based on systematic analysis of data in multiple databases, we firstly verified that CARM1 is highly expressed in most tumors compared with corresponding normal tissues, and is bound up with poor prognosis in some tumors. Subsequently, relevance between CARM1 expression level and tumor immune microenvironment is analyzed from the perspectives of tumor mutation burden, microsatellite instability, mismatch repair genes, methyltransferases genes, immune checkpoint genes and immune cells infiltration, indicating a potential relationship between CARM1 expression and tumor microenvironment. A gene enrichment analysis followed shortly, which implied that the role of CARM1 in tumor pathogenesis may be related to transcriptional imbalance and viral carcinogenesis.
Our first comprehensive bioinformatics analysis provides a broad molecular perspective on the role of CARM1 in various tumors, highlights its value in clinical prognosis and potential association with tumor immune microenvironment, which may furnish an immune based antitumor strategy to provide a reference for more accurate and personalized immunotherapy in the future.
The aims were to profile the DNA methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore cancer-specific methylation biomarkers. Fifty-four pairs of CRCs and the adjacent normal tissues were subjected to Infinium Human Methylation 450K assay and analysed using ChAMP R package. A total of 26,093 differentially methylated probes were identified, which represent 6156 genes; 650 probes were hypermethylated, and 25,443 were hypomethylated. Hypermethylated sites were common in CpG islands, while hypomethylated sites were in open sea. Most of the hypermethylated genes were associated with pathways in cancer, while the hypomethylated genes were involved in the PI3K-AKT signalling pathway. Among the identified differentially methylated probes, we found evidence of four potential probes in CRCs versus adjacent normal; HOXA2 cg06786372, OPLAH cg17301223, cg15638338, and TRIM31 cg02583465 that could serve as a new biomarker in CRC since these probes were aberrantly methylated in CRC as well as involved in the progression of CRC. Furthermore, we revealed the potential of promoter methylation ADHFE1 cg18065361 in differentiating the CRC from normal colonic tissue from the integrated analysis. In conclusion, aberrant DNA methylation is significantly involved in CRC pathogenesis and is associated with gene silencing. This study reports several potential important methylated genes in CRC and, therefore, merit further validation as novel candidate biomarker genes in CRC.