Gene Expression
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259125
Elia Bosch-Rué ◽  
Leire Díez-Tercero ◽  
Raquel Rodríguez-González ◽  
Begoña María Bosch-Canals ◽  
Roman A. Perez

The use of copper (Cu2+) and cobalt (Co2+) has been described to stimulate blood vessel formation, a key process for the success of tissue regeneration. However, understanding how different concentrations of these ions affect cellular response is important to design scaffolds for their delivery to better fine tune the angiogenic response. On the one hand, gene expression analysis and the assessment of tubular formation structures with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) revealed that high concentrations (10μM) of Cu2+ in early times and lower concentrations (0.1 and 1μM) at later times (day 7) enhanced angiogenic response. On the other hand, higher concentrations (25μM) of Co2+ during all time course increased the angiogenic gene expression and 0.5, 5 and 25μM enhanced the ability to form tubular structures. To further explore synergistic effects combining both ions, the non-toxic concentrations were used simultaneously, although results showed an increased cell toxicity and no improvement of angiogenic response. These results provide useful information for the design of Cu2+ or Co2+ delivery scaffolds in order to release the appropriate concentration during time course for blood vessel stimulation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 220 (12) ◽  
Elia Zomot ◽  
Hadas Achildiev Cohen ◽  
Inbal Dagan ◽  
Ruslana Militsin ◽  
Raz Palty

Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through the Ca2+ release–activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel is a central mechanism by which cells generate Ca2+ signals and mediate Ca2+-dependent gene expression. The molecular basis for CRAC channel regulation by the SOCE-associated regulatory factor (SARAF) remained insufficiently understood. Here we found that following ER Ca2+ depletion, SARAF facilitates a conformational change in the ER Ca2+ sensor STIM1 that relieves an activation constraint enforced by the STIM1 inactivation domain (ID; aa 475–483) and promotes initial activation of STIM1, its translocation to ER–plasma membrane junctions, and coupling to Orai1 channels. Following intracellular Ca2+ rise, cooperation between SARAF and the STIM1 ID controls CRAC channel slow Ca2+-dependent inactivation. We further show that in T lymphocytes, SARAF is required for proper T cell receptor evoked transcription. Taking all these data together, we uncover a dual regulatory role for SARAF during both activation and inactivation of CRAC channels and show that SARAF fine-tunes intracellular Ca2+ responses and downstream gene expression in cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (10) ◽  
Derek Gatherer ◽  
Daniel P. Depledge ◽  
Carol A. Hartley ◽  
Moriah L. Szpara ◽  
Paola K. Vaz ◽  

Members of the family Herpesviridae have enveloped, spherical virions with characteristic complex structures consisting of symmetrical and non-symmetrical components. The linear, double-stranded DNA genomes of 125–241 kbp contain 70–170 genes, of which 43 have been inherited from an ancestral herpesvirus. In general, herpesviruses have coevolved with and are highly adapted to their hosts, which comprise many mammalian, avian and reptilian species. Following primary infection, they are able to establish lifelong latent infection, during which there is limited viral gene expression. Severe disease is usually observed only in the foetus, the very young, the immunocompromised or following infection of an alternative host. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Herpesviridae, which is available at

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gothandapani Sellamuthu ◽  
Shan Amin ◽  
Jan Bílý ◽  
Jirí Synek ◽  
Roman Modlinger ◽  

Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is one of the most destructive and economically important forest pests. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying its adaptation to toxic host compounds may unleash the potential for future management of this pest. Gene expression studies could be considered as one of the key experimental approaches for such purposes. A suitable reference gene selection is fundamental for quantitative gene expression analysis and functional genomics studies in I. sexdentatus. Twelve commonly used reference genes in Coleopterans were screened under different experimental conditions to obtain accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data. The majority of the 12 reference genes showed a relatively stable expression pattern among developmental stages, tissue-specific, and sex-specific stages; however, some variabilities were observed during varied temperature incubation. Under developmental conditions, the Tubulin beta-1 chain (β-Tubulin) was the most stable reference gene, followed by translation elongation factor (eEF2) and ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3). In sex-specific conditions, RPS3, β-Tubulin, and eEF2 were the most stable reference genes. In contrast, different sets of genes were shown higher stability in terms of expression under tissue-specific conditions, i.e., RPS3 and eEF2 in head tissue, V-ATPase-A and eEF2 in the fat body, V-ATPase-A and eEF2 in the gut. Under varied temperatures, β-Tubulin and V-ATPase-A were most stable, whereas ubiquitin (UbiQ) and V-ATPase-A displayed the highest expression stability after Juvenile Hormone III treatment. The findings were validated further using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR)-based target gene expression analysis. Nevertheless, the present study delivers a catalog of reference genes under varied experimental conditions for the coleopteran forest pest I. sexdentatus and paves the way for future gene expression and functional genomic studies on this species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Michele Yeo ◽  
Yong Chen ◽  
Changyu Jiang ◽  
Gang Chen ◽  
Kaiyuan Wang ◽  

AbstractInhibitory GABA-ergic neurotransmission is fundamental for the adult vertebrate central nervous system and requires low chloride concentration in neurons, maintained by KCC2, a neuroprotective ion transporter that extrudes intracellular neuronal chloride. To identify Kcc2 gene expression‑enhancing compounds, we screened 1057 cell growth-regulating compounds in cultured primary cortical neurons. We identified kenpaullone (KP), which enhanced Kcc2/KCC2 expression and function in cultured rodent and human neurons by inhibiting GSK3ß. KP effectively reduced pathologic pain-like behavior in mouse models of nerve injury and bone cancer. In a nerve-injury pain model, KP restored Kcc2 expression and GABA-evoked chloride reversal potential in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Delta-catenin, a phosphorylation-target of GSK3ß in neurons, activated the Kcc2 promoter via KAISO transcription factor. Transient spinal over-expression of delta-catenin mimicked KP analgesia. Our findings of a newly repurposed compound and a novel, genetically-encoded mechanism that each enhance Kcc2 gene expression enable us to re-normalize disrupted inhibitory neurotransmission through genetic re-programming.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ramin Hasibi ◽  
Tom Michoel

Abstract Background Molecular interaction networks summarize complex biological processes as graphs, whose structure is informative of biological function at multiple scales. Simultaneously, omics technologies measure the variation or activity of genes, proteins, or metabolites across individuals or experimental conditions. Integrating the complementary viewpoints of biological networks and omics data is an important task in bioinformatics, but existing methods treat networks as discrete structures, which are intrinsically difficult to integrate with continuous node features or activity measures. Graph neural networks map graph nodes into a low-dimensional vector space representation, and can be trained to preserve both the local graph structure and the similarity between node features. Results We studied the representation of transcriptional, protein–protein and genetic interaction networks in E. coli and mouse using graph neural networks. We found that such representations explain a large proportion of variation in gene expression data, and that using gene expression data as node features improves the reconstruction of the graph from the embedding. We further proposed a new end-to-end Graph Feature Auto-Encoder framework for the prediction of node features utilizing the structure of the gene networks, which is trained on the feature prediction task, and showed that it performs better at predicting unobserved node features than regular MultiLayer Perceptrons. When applied to the problem of imputing missing data in single-cell RNAseq data, the Graph Feature Auto-Encoder utilizing our new graph convolution layer called FeatGraphConv outperformed a state-of-the-art imputation method that does not use protein interaction information, showing the benefit of integrating biological networks and omics data with our proposed approach. Conclusion Our proposed Graph Feature Auto-Encoder framework is a powerful approach for integrating and exploiting the close relation between molecular interaction networks and functional genomics data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  
Jun-tao Guo

AbstractInsertions and deletions (Indels) represent one of the major variation types in the human genome and have been implicated in diseases including cancer. To study the features of somatic indels in different cancer genomes, we investigated the indels from two large samples of cancer types: invasive breast carcinoma (BRCA) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Besides mapping somatic indels in both coding and untranslated regions (UTRs) from the cancer whole exome sequences, we investigated the overlap between these indels and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), the key elements for regulation of gene expression that have been found in both coding and non-coding sequences. Compared to the germline indels in healthy genomes, somatic indels contain more coding indels with higher than expected frame-shift (FS) indels in cancer genomes. LUAD has a higher ratio of deletions and higher coding and FS indel rates than BRCA. More importantly, these somatic indels in cancer genomes tend to locate in sequences with important functions, which can affect the core secondary structures of proteins and have a bigger overlap with predicted TFBSs in coding regions than the germline indels. The somatic CDS indels are also enriched in highly conserved nucleotides when compared with germline CDS indels.

2021 ◽  
Paromita Dey ◽  
Miles A Soyer ◽  
Bijan K Dey

Abstract Numerous studies have established the critical roles of microRNAs in regulating posttranscriptional gene expression in diverse biological processes. Here, we report on the role and mechanism of miR-24-3p in skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. miR-24-3p promotes myoblast differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration by directly targeting high mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) and regulating it and its direct downstream target, the inhibitor of differentiation 3 (ID3). miR-24-3p knockdown in neonatal mice increases PAX7-positive proliferating muscle stem cells (MuSCs) by derepressing Hmga1 and Id3 . Similarly, inhibiting miR24-3p in the tibialis anterior muscle prevents Hmga1 and Id3 downregulation and impairs regeneration. These findings provide evidence that the miR-24-3p/HMGA1/ID3 axis is required for MuSC differentiation and regeneration in vivo .

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