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2022 ◽  
Vol 465 ◽  
pp. 109859
M.M. Nicolosi Gelis ◽  
M.B. Sathicq ◽  
J. Jupke ◽  
J. Cochero

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Guoda Song ◽  
Yucong Zhang ◽  
Hao Li ◽  
Zhuo Liu ◽  
Wen Song ◽  

Background: Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (UB/UBL) conjugations are one of the most important post-translational modifications and involve in the occurrence of cancers. However, the biological function and clinical significance of ubiquitin related genes (URGs) in prostate cancer (PCa) are still unclear.Methods: The transcriptome data and clinicopathological data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which was served as training cohort. The GSE21034 dataset was used to validate. The two datasets were removed batch effects and normalized using the “sva” R package. Univariate Cox, LASSO Cox, and multivariate Cox regression were performed to identify a URGs prognostic signature. Then Kaplan-Meier curve and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the URGs signature. Thereafter, a nomogram was constructed and evaluated.Results: A six-URGs signature was established to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) of PCa, which included ARIH2, FBXO6, GNB4, HECW2, LZTR1 and RNF185. Kaplan-Meier curve and ROC curve analyses revealed good performance of the prognostic signature in both training cohort and validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses showed the signature was an independent prognostic factor for BCR of PCa in training cohort. Then a nomogram based on the URGs signature and clinicopathological factors was established and showed an accurate prediction for prognosis in PCa.Conclusion: Our study established a URGs prognostic signature and constructed a nomogram to predict the BCR of PCa. This study could help with individualized treatment and identify PCa patients with high BCR risks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xia Lv ◽  
Yuyang Jin ◽  
Danting Zhang ◽  
Yixuan Li ◽  
Yakai Fu ◽  

Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody-positive dermatomyositis (DM)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) may progress rapidly and lead to high mortality within 6 or 12 months. Except for reported prognostic factors, simple but powerful prognostic biomarkers are still in need in practice. In this study, we focused on circulating monocyte and lymphocyte counts and their variation tendency in the early stage of ILD. A total of 351 patients from two inception anti-MDA5 antibody-positive cohorts were included in this study, with various treatment choices. Lymphocyte count remained lower in the first month after admission in the non-survivor patients. Although baseline monocyte count showed no significant differences, average monocyte count in the following 4 weeks was also lower in the non-survivor group. Based on the C-index and analysis by the “survminer” R package in the discovery cohort, we chose 0.24 × 109/L as the cutoff value for Mono W0-2, 0.61 × 109/L as the cutoff value for lymph W0-2, and 0.78 × 109/L as the cutoff value for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) W0-2, to predict the 6-month all-cause mortality. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves and adjusted hazard ratio with age, gender, and the number of immunosuppressants used all validated that patients with lower average monocyte count, lower average lymphocyte count, or lower average PBMC count in the first 2 weeks after admission had higher 6-month death risk, no matter in the validation cohort or in the pooled data. Furthermore, flow cytometry figured out that non-classical monocytes in patients with anti-MDA5 antibody-positive DM were significantly lower than healthy controls and patients with DM without anti-MDA5 antibodies. In conclusion, this study elucidated the predictive value of monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the early stage and may help rheumatologists to understand the possible pathogenesis of this challenging disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Gilma Hernández-Herrera ◽  
David Moriña ◽  
Albert Navarro

Abstract Background When dealing with recurrent events in observational studies it is common to include subjects who became at risk before follow-up. This phenomenon is known as left censoring, and simply ignoring these prior episodes can lead to biased and inefficient estimates. We aimed to propose a statistical method that performs well in this setting. Methods Our proposal was based on the use of models with specific baseline hazards. In this, the number of prior episodes were imputed when unknown and stratified according to whether the subject had been at risk of presenting the event before t = 0. A frailty term was also used. Two formulations were used for this “Specific Hazard Frailty Model Imputed” based on the “counting process” and “gap time.” Performance was then examined in different scenarios through a comprehensive simulation study. Results The proposed method performed well even when the percentage of subjects at risk before follow-up was very high. Biases were often below 10% and coverages were around 95%, being somewhat conservative. The gap time approach performed better with constant baseline hazards, whereas the counting process performed better with non-constant baseline hazards. Conclusions The use of common baseline methods is not advised when knowledge of prior episodes experienced by a participant is lacking. The approach in this study performed acceptably in most scenarios in which it was evaluated and should be considered an alternative in this context. It has been made freely available to interested researchers as R package miRecSurv.

2022 ◽  
Sebastian Hoehna ◽  
Bjoern Tore Kopperud ◽  
Andrew F Magee

Diversification rates inferred from phylogenies are not identifiable. There are infinitely many combinations of speciation and extinction rate functions that have the exact same likelihood score for a given phylogeny, building a congruence class. The specific shape and characteristics of such congruence classes have not yet been studied. Whether speciation and extinction rate functions within a congruence class share common features is also not known. Instead of striving to make the diversification rates identifiable, we can embrace their inherent non-identifiable nature. We use two different approaches to explore a congruence class: (i) testing of specific alternative hypotheses, and (ii) randomly sampling alternative rate function within the congruence class. Our methods are implemented in the open-source R package ACDC (https://github.com/afmagee/ACDC). ACDC provides a flexible approach to explore the congruence class and provides summaries of rate functions within a congruence class. The summaries can highlight common trends, i.e. increasing, flat or decreasing rates. Although there are infinitely many equally likely diversification rate functions, these can share common features. ACDC can be used to assess if diversification rate patterns are robust despite non-identifiability. In our example, we clearly identify three phases of diversification rate changes that are common among all models in the congruence class. Thus, congruence classes are not necessarily a problem for studying historical patterns of biodiversity from phylogenies.

2022 ◽  
Zhengyi Zhu ◽  
Glen A Satten ◽  
Yi-Juan Hu

We previously developed LDM for testing hypotheses about the microbiome that performs the test at both the community level and the individual taxon level. LDM can be applied to relative abundance data and presence-absence data separately, which work well when associated taxa are abundant and rare, respectively. Here we propose an omnibus test based on LDM that allows simultaneous consideration of data at different scales, thus offering optimal power across scenarios with different association mechanisms. The omnibus test is available for the wide range of data types and analyses that are supported by LDM. The omnibus test has been added to the R package LDM, which is available on GitHub at https://github.com/yijuanhu/LDM .

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 198
Rashidah Baharudin ◽  
Muhiddin Ishak ◽  
Azliana Muhamad Yusof ◽  
Sazuita Saidin ◽  
Saiful Effendi Syafruddin ◽  

The aims were to profile the DNA methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore cancer-specific methylation biomarkers. Fifty-four pairs of CRCs and the adjacent normal tissues were subjected to Infinium Human Methylation 450K assay and analysed using ChAMP R package. A total of 26,093 differentially methylated probes were identified, which represent 6156 genes; 650 probes were hypermethylated, and 25,443 were hypomethylated. Hypermethylated sites were common in CpG islands, while hypomethylated sites were in open sea. Most of the hypermethylated genes were associated with pathways in cancer, while the hypomethylated genes were involved in the PI3K-AKT signalling pathway. Among the identified differentially methylated probes, we found evidence of four potential probes in CRCs versus adjacent normal; HOXA2 cg06786372, OPLAH cg17301223, cg15638338, and TRIM31 cg02583465 that could serve as a new biomarker in CRC since these probes were aberrantly methylated in CRC as well as involved in the progression of CRC. Furthermore, we revealed the potential of promoter methylation ADHFE1 cg18065361 in differentiating the CRC from normal colonic tissue from the integrated analysis. In conclusion, aberrant DNA methylation is significantly involved in CRC pathogenesis and is associated with gene silencing. This study reports several potential important methylated genes in CRC and, therefore, merit further validation as novel candidate biomarker genes in CRC.

2022 ◽  
Stephen Coleman ◽  
Xaquin Castro Dopico ◽  
Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam ◽  
Paul DW Kirk ◽  
Chris Wallace

Systematic differences between batches of samples present significant challenges when analysing biological data. Such batch effects are well-studied and are liable to occur in any setting where multiple batches are assayed. Many existing methods for accounting for these have focused on high-dimensional data such as RNA-seq and have assumptions that reflect this. Here we focus on batch-correction in low-dimensional classification problems. We propose a semi-supervised Bayesian generative classifier based on mixture models that jointly predicts class labels and models batch effects. Our model allows observations to be probabilistically assigned to classes in a way that incorporates uncertainty arising from batch effects. We explore two choices for the within-class densities: the multivariate normal and the multivariate t. A simulation study demonstrates that our method performs well compared to popular off-the-shelf machine learning methods and is also quick; performing 15,000 iterations on a dataset of 500 samples with 2 measurements each in 7.3 seconds for the MVN mixture model and 11.9 seconds for the MVT mixture model. We apply our model to two datasets generated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a spectrophotometric assay often used to screen for antibodies. The examples we consider were collected in 2020 and measure seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2. We use our model to estimate seroprevalence in the populations studied. We implement the models in C++ using a Metropolis-within-Gibbs algorithm; this is available in the R package at https://github.com/stcolema/BatchMixtureModel. Scripts to recreate our analysis are at https://github.com/stcolema/BatchClassifierPaper.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (69) ◽  
pp. 3844
Perry de Valpine ◽  
Sally Paganin ◽  
Daniel Turek

2022 ◽  
Francesco Chianucci ◽  
Carlotta Ferrara ◽  
Nicola Puletti

Digital Cover Photography (DCP) is an increasingly popular tool for estimating canopy cover and leaf area index (LAI). However, existing solutions to process canopy images are predominantly tailored for fisheye photography, whereas open-access tools for DCP are lacking. We developed an R package (coveR) to support the whole processing of DCP images in an automated, fast and reproducible way. The package functions, which are designed for step-by-step single-image analysis, can be performed sequentially in a pipeline and also allow simple implementation of batch-processing bunches of images. A case study is presented to demonstrate the reliability of canopy attributes derived from coveR in pure beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands with variable canopy density and structure. Estimates of gap fraction and effective LAI from DCP were validated against reference measurements obtained from terrestrial laser scanning. By providing a simple, transparent and flexible image processing procedure, coveR supported the use of DCP for routine measurements and monitoring of forest canopy attributes. This, combined with the implementability of DCP in many devices, including smartphones, micro-cameras, and remote trail cameras, can greatly expand the accessibility of the method also to non-experts.

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