Expression Profiles
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PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12221
Junchang Li ◽  
Yumei Jiang ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Yongjing Ni ◽  
Zhixin Jiao ◽  

Tillering ability is a key agronomy trait for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Studies on a dwarf monoculm wheat mutant (dmc) showed that ARF11 played an important role in tillering of wheat. In this study, a total of 67 ARF family members were identified and clustered to two main classes with four subgroups based on their protein structures. The promoter regions of T. aestivum ARF (TaARF) genes contain a large number of cis-acting elements closely related to plant growth and development, and hormone response. The segmental duplication events occurred commonly and played a major role in the expansion of TaARFs. The gene collinearity degrees of the ARFs between wheat and other grasses, rice and maize, were significantly high. The evolution distances among TaARFs determine their expression profiles, such as homoeologous genes have similar expression profiles, like TaARF4-3A-1, TaARF4-3A-2 and their homoeologous genes. The expression profiles of TaARFs in various tissues or organs indicated TaARF3, TaARF4, TaARF9 and TaARF22 and their homoeologous genes played basic roles during wheat development. TaARF4, TaARF9, TaARF12, TaARF15, TaARF17, TaARF21, TaARF25 and their homoeologous genes probably played basic roles in tiller development. qRT-PCR analyses of 20 representative TaARF genes revealed that the abnormal expressions of TaARF11 and TaARF14 were major causes constraining the tillering of dmc. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents in dmc were significantly less than that in Guomai 301 at key tillering stages. Exogenous IAA application significantly promoted wheat tillering, and affected the transcriptions of TaARFs. These data suggested that TaARFs as well as IAA signaling were involved in controlling wheat tillering. This study provided valuable clues for functional characterization of ARFs in wheat.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fang Zhu ◽  
Zhizhong Liu ◽  
Qianyin Zhou ◽  
Jingyu Fan ◽  
Dai Zhou ◽  

Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common malignant tumor in young men and is associated with poor prognosis. We assessed the RNA expression profiles of 13 TGCT tissues and 4 adjacent normal tissues by transcriptome sequencing to identify novel prognostic biomarkers. We detected several differentially expressed mRNAs in TGCT that were functionally annotated by GO and KEGG enrichment analyses to tumorigenesis-related processes such as immunity and chemotherapeutic resistance. An mRNA-lncRNA-miRNA regulatory network was constructed using RNA-Seq data and public databases, and integrated with TCGA database to develop a prediction model for metastasis and recurrence. Finally, GRK4, PCYT2 and RGSL1 were identified as predictive markers of survival and therapeutic response. In conclusion, we found several potential predictors for TGCT prognosis and immunotherapeutic response by ceRNA network analysis.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Gabriela Santos-Rodriguez ◽  
Irina Voineagu ◽  
Robert James Weatheritt

Many primate genes produce circular RNAs (circRNAs). However, the extent of circRNA conservation between closely related species remains unclear. By comparing tissue-specific transcriptomes across over 70 million years of primate evolution, we identify that within 3 million years circRNA expression profiles diverged such that they are more related to species identity than organ type. However, our analysis also revealed a subset of circRNAs with conserved neural expression across tens of millions of years of evolution. By comparing to species-specific circRNAs, we identified that the downstream intron of the conserved circRNAs display a dramatic lengthening during evolution due to the insertion of novel retrotransposons. Our work provides comparative analyses of the mechanisms promoting circRNAs to generate increased transcriptomic complexity in primates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Anja Schlecht ◽  
Stefaniya Boneva ◽  
Henrike Salie ◽  
Saskia Killmer ◽  
Julian Wolf ◽  

Abstract Background Imaging mass cytometry (IMC) combines the principles of flow cytometry and mass spectrometry (MS) with laser scanning spatial resolution and offers unique advantages for the analysis of tissue samples in unprecedented detail. In contrast to conventional immunohistochemistry, which is limited in its application by the number of possible fluorochrome combinations, IMC uses isoptope-coupled antibodies that allow multiplex analysis of up to 40 markers in the same tissue section simultaneously. Methods In this report we use IMC to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded conjunctival tissue. We performed a 18-biomarkers IMC analysis of conjunctival tissue to determine and summarize the possibilities, relevance and limitations of IMC for deciphering the biology and pathology of ocular diseases. Results Without modifying the manufacturer’s protocol, we observed positive and plausible staining for 12 of 18 biomarkers. Subsequent bioinformatical single-cell analysis and phenograph clustering identified 24 different cellular clusters with distinct expression profiles with respect to the markers used. Conclusions IMC enables highly multiplexed imaging of ocular samples at subcellular resolution. IMC is an innovative and feasible method, providing new insights into ocular disease pathogenesis that will be valuable for basic research, drug discovery and clinical diagnostics.

2021 ◽  
Jie Gao ◽  
Mei Luo ◽  
Shuo Zhao ◽  
Hailing Wang ◽  
Xuan Li ◽  

Abstract Studies have reported that gestational PM2.5 exposure is associated with preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether maternal exposure to PM2.5 causes adverse pregnancy outcomes is still largely unknown. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either filtered (FA) or PM2.5 air during the whole pregnant period. A PE-like rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of L-NAME (300 mg/kg) from GD12 to until GD20. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), weight gain, pup weight and placental weight were measured. The percentages of rat Treg/Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines were examined by flow cytometry. Gene expression profiles were analyzed by microarray, and the expression of differentially expressed genes were validated by qRT-PCR. The results showed that maternal PM2.5 exposure had no effect on SBP but was associated with LBW and a higher labyrinth/basal zone ratio. The percentages of splenic Th17 cells from the PM2.5 group in PE-like rats were higher than those from the FA or PM2.5 groups in healthy controls. A significantly decreased Treg/Th17 cell ratio was found in the PM2.5 group in PE-like rats. The mRNA expression of Foxp3 was downregulated, while the mRNA expression of RORα and RORγτ was upregulated after PM2.5 exposure. Furthermore, we observed that both the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-a, CCL2, CCL3 and CCR1 increased in the PM2.5 groups. Our study suggested that systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of FGR associated with PM2.5 exposure throughout pregnancy.

Roos Houtsma ◽  
Nisha K. van der Meer ◽  
Kees Meijer ◽  
Linde Morsink ◽  
Shanna M. Hogeling ◽  

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often presents as an oligoclonal disease whereby multiple genetically distinct subclones can co-exist within patients. Differences in signaling and drug sensitivity of such subclones complicates treatment and warrants tools to identify them and track disease progression. We previously identified over 50 AML-specific plasma membrane (PM) proteins and seven of these (CD82, CD97, FLT3, IL1RAP, TIM3, CD25 and CD123) were implemented in routine diagnostics in patients with AML (n=256) and MDS (n=33). We developed a pipeline termed CombiFlow in which expression data of multiple PM markers is merged, allowing a Principle Component-based analyses to identify distinctive marker expression profiles and to generate single cell tSNE landscapes to longitudinally track clonal evolution. Positivity for one or more of the markers after 2 courses of intensive chemotherapy predicted a shorter relapse-free survival supporting a role of these markers in measurable residual disease (MRD) detection. CombiFlow also allowed the tracking of clonal evolution in paired diagnosis and relapse samples (n=12). Extending the panel to 36 AML-specific markers further refined the CombiFlow pipeline. In conclusion, CombiFlow provides a valuable tool in the diagnosis, MRD detection, clonal tracking, and the understanding of clonal heterogeneity in AML.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1383
Min Yang ◽  
Jean Chong Li ◽  
Chang Tao ◽  
Sa Wu ◽  
Bin Liu ◽  

Progesterone-induced rapid non-genomic signaling events have been confirmed through several membrane progesterone receptors (mPR). Some mPRs were reported to correlate with cancer progression and patient prognosis. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of all progesterone receptor (PGR)-related genes in prostate cancer tissues and examined the correlations of their expression levels with disease progression and patient survival outcomes. We utilized multiple RNA-seq and cDNA microarray datasets to analyze gene expression profiles and performed logistics aggression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis after stratifying patients based on tumor stages and Gleason scores. We also used NCBI GEO datasets to examine gene expression patterns in individual cell types of the prostate gland and to determine the androgen-induced alteration of gene expression. Spearman coefficient analysis was conducted to access the correlation of target gene expression with treatment responses and disease progression status. The classic PGR was mainly expressed in stromal cells and progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) genes were the predominant genes in prostate epithelial cells. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) was significantly higher than PGRMC2 in all prostate cell types. In prostate cancer tissues, PAQR6 expression was significantly upregulated, while all other genes were largely downregulated compared to normal prostate tissues. Although both PAQR6 upregulation and PAQR5 downregulation were significantly correlated with tumor pathological stages, only PAQR6 upregulation was associated with Gleason score, free-prostate-specific antigen (fPSA)/total-PSA (tPSA) ratio, and patient overall survival outcomes. In addition, PAQR6 upregulation and PGR/PGRMC1 downregulation were significantly associated with a quick relapse. Conversely, in neuroendocrinal prostate cancer (NEPC) tissues, PAQR6 expression was significantly lower, but PAQR7/8 expression was higher than castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) tissues. PAQR8 expression was positively correlated with androgen receptor (AR) score and AR-V7 expression levels but inversely correlated with NEPC score in metastatic CRPC tumors. This study provides detailed expression profiles of membrane progesterone receptor genes in primary cancer, CRPC, and NEPC tissues. PAQR6 upregulation in primary cancer tissues is a novel prognostic biomarker for disease progression, overall, and progression-free survival in prostate cancers. PAQR8 expression in CRPC tissues is a biomarker for AR activation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Shaofei Rao ◽  
Xinyang Wu ◽  
Hongying Zheng ◽  
Yuwen Lu ◽  
Jiejun Peng ◽  

Abstract Background The Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like kinase (CrRLK1L) is a subfamily of the RLK gene family, and members are sensors of cell wall integrity and regulators of cell polarity growth. Recent studies have also shown that members of this subfamily are involved in plant immunity. Nicotiana benthamiana is a model plant widely used in the study of plant-pathogen interactions. However, the members of the NbCrRLK1L subfamily and their response to pathogens have not been reported. Results In this study, a total of 31 CrRLK1L members were identified in the N. benthamiana genome, and these can be divided into 6 phylogenetic groups (I-VI). The members in each group have similar exon-intron structures and conserved motifs. NbCrRLK1Ls were predicted to be regulated by cis-acting elements such as STRE, TCA, ABRE, etc., and to be the target of transcription factors such as Dof and MYB. The expression profiles of the 16 selected NbCrRLK1Ls were determined by quantitative PCR. Most NbCrRLK1Ls were highly expressed in leaves but there were different and diverse expression patterns in other tissues. Inoculation with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae or with Turnip mosaic virus significantly altered the transcript levels of the tested genes, suggesting that NbCrRLK1Ls may be involved in the response to pathogens. Conclusions This study systematically identified the CrRLK1L members in N. benthamiana, and analyzed their tissue-specific expression and gene expression profiles in response to different pathogens and two pathogens associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This research lays the foundation for exploring the function of NbCrRLK1Ls in plant-microbe interactions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuai Ma ◽  
Yixu Ba ◽  
Hang Ji ◽  
Fang Wang ◽  
Jianyang Du ◽  

BackgroundAlthough mRNA vaccines have been efficient for combating a variety of tumors, their effectiveness against glioma remains unclear. There is growing evidence that immunophenotyping can reflect the comprehensive immune status and microenvironment of the tumor, which correlates closely with treatment response and vaccination potency. The purpose of this research was to screen for effective antigens in glioma that could be used for developing mRNA vaccines and to further differentiate the immune subtypes of glioma to create an selection criteria for suitable patients for vaccination.MethodsGene expression profiles and clinical data of 698 glioma samples were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and RNA_seq data of 1018 glioma samples was gathered from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas. Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis was used to determine differential expression genes and prognostic markers, cBioPortal software was used to verify gene alterations, and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource was used to investigate the relationships among genes and immune infiltrating cells. Consistency clustering was applied for consistent matrix construction and data aggregation, Gene oncology enrichment was performed for functional annotation, and a graph learning-based dimensionality reduction method was applied to describe the subtypes of immunity.ResultsFour overexpressed and mutated tumor antigens associated with poor prognosis and infiltration of antigen presenting cells were identified in glioma, including TP53, IDH1, C3, and TCF12. Besides, four immune subtypes of glioma (IS1-IS4) and 10 immune gene modules were identified consistently in the TCGA data. The immune subtypes had diverse molecular, cellular, and clinical features. IS1 and IS4 displayed an immune-activating phenotype and were associated with worse survival than the other two subtypes, while IS2 and IS3 had lower levels of tumor immune infiltration. Immunogenic cell death regulators and immune checkpoints were also diversely expressed in the four immune subtypes.ConclusionTP53, IDH1, C3, and TCF12 are effective antigens for the development of anti-glioma mRNA vaccines. We found four stable and repeatable immune subtypes of human glioma, the classification of the immune subtypes of glioma may play a crucial role in the predicting mRNA vaccine outcome.

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