Cell Wall
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2021 ◽  
Yun-Zhao Zhang ◽  
Bing Li ◽  
Yu-Ting Pan ◽  
Yu-Lan Fang ◽  
De-Wei Li ◽  

Protein phosphatases (PPs) play important roles in the regulation of various cellular processes in eukaryotes. The ascomycete Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a causal agent of anthracnose disease on some important crops and trees. In this study, CgPPZ1, a protein phosphate gene and a homolog of yeast PPZ1, was identified in C. gloeosporioides. Targeted gene deletion showed that CgPpz1 was important for vegetative growth and asexual development, conidial germination, and plant infection. Cytological examinations revealed that CgPpz1 was localized to the cytoplasm. The Cgppz1 mutant was hypersensitive to osmotic stresses, cell wall stressors, and oxidative stressors. Taken together, our results indicated that CgPpz1 plays important role in fungal development and virulence of C. gloeosporioides and multiple stress responses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 227 ◽  
pp. 112906
Pengfei Liu ◽  
Zhengqiang Jin ◽  
Chunyan Dai ◽  
Lanping Guo ◽  
Xiuming Cui ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11401
Ying Luo ◽  
Yuzhu Song

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are regarded as a new generation of antibiotics. Besides antimicrobial activity, AMPs also have antibiofilm, immune-regulatory, and other activities. Exploring the mechanism of action of AMPs may help in the modification and development of AMPs. Many studies were conducted on the mechanism of AMPs. The present review mainly summarizes the research status on the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antibiofilm properties of AMPs. This study not only describes the mechanism of cell wall action and membrane-targeting action but also includes the transmembrane mechanism of intracellular action and intracellular action targets. It also discusses the dual mechanism of action reported by a large number of investigations. Antibiofilm and anti-inflammatory mechanisms were described based on the formation of biofilms and inflammation. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the multiple activities and coordination of AMPs in vivo, and to fully understand AMPs to realize their therapeutic prospect.

Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 374 (6566) ◽  
pp. 465-471 ◽  
Shaoliang Xiao ◽  
Chaoji Chen ◽  
Qinqin Xia ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Yuan Yao ◽  

2021 ◽  
Baohua Yu ◽  
Sufang Yao ◽  
Xin Wu ◽  
Xiaoping HU

Abstract Revealing the ultrasonic cutting mechanism of honeycomb composite is important for determining the acoustic parameters of the ultrasonic system and selecting the parameters of the cutting process. Understanding more details of the stress on the cell wall from ultrasonic vibrating tool and the conditions for cell wall breakage is essential to study the machining mechanism. According to the evolution of contact state between the straight edge cutter and the honeycomb cell wall in a cycle, the cutting force acting on the cell wall is divided into three stages: transverse cutting load action, longitudinal cutting load action, and no cutting load action. The cell wall deflection and stress equations under transverse cutting load were established by applying elastic thin plate small deflection theory. The deformation and fracture characteristics of the honeycomb cell wall were analyzed by combining the analytical and the finite element model. The results showed that the ultrasonic vibration of the cutter greatly improved the stiffening effect of the cell wall and its fracture was caused by the deflection under the transverse cutting load, which exceeded the maximum allowable deformation after local stiffening. In addition, with only longitudinal cutting load, it was difficult to break the critical buckling state that leads to cell wall fracture.

Anthony A. Iannetta ◽  
Nicole E. Minton ◽  
Alexis A. Uitenbroek ◽  
Jaime L. Little ◽  
Caroline R. Stanton ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ji-Nam Kang ◽  
Jung Sun Kim ◽  
Si Myung Lee ◽  
So Youn Won ◽  
Mi-Suk Seo ◽  

The taproot of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important sink organ; it is morphologically diverse and contains large amounts of secondary metabolites. Sucrose metabolism is believed to be important in the development of sink organs. We measured the amounts of glucose, fructose, and sucrose in the roots of sixty three radish accessions and analyzed the association between the sugar content and the root phenotype. Fructose content correlated with the root color and length characteristics, glucose was the most abundant sugar in the roots, and the sucrose content was very low, compared to that of the hexoses in most of the accessions. Expression analysis of the genes involved in sucrose metabolism, transportation, starch synthesis, and cell wall synthesis was performed through RNA sequencing. The genes encoding sucrose synthases (SUSY) and the enzymes involved in the synthesis of cellulose were highly expressed, indicating that SUSY is involved in cell wall synthesis in radish roots. The positive correlation coefficient (R) between the sucrose content and the expression of cell wall invertase and sugar transporter proteins suggest that hexose accumulation could occur through the apoplastic pathway in radish roots. A positive R score was also obtained when comparing the expression of genes encoding SUSY and fructokinase (FK), suggesting that the fructose produced by SUSY is mostly phosphorylated by FK. In addition, we concluded that sucrose was the most metabolized sugar in radish roots.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yiru Si ◽  
Bishnu P. Khanal ◽  
Oliver K. Schlüter ◽  
Moritz Knoche

The pattern of cuticle deposition plays an important role in managing strain buildup in fruit cuticles. Cuticular strain is the primary trigger for numerous fruit-surface disorders in many fruit crop species. Recent evidence indicates a strain gradient may exist within the apple fruit cuticle. The outer layers of the cuticle are more strained and thus more susceptible to microcracking than the inner layers. A radial gradient in cuticle age is the most likely explanation. Our study aimed to establish whether (or not) deposition of new cutin in a developing apple fruit occurs on the inner surface of the cuticle, i.e., immediately abutting the outward-facing epidermal cell wall. Developing apples were fed with 13C oleic acid through the skin. Following a 14-d period for incorporation, the fruit was harvested and the cuticular membranes (CMs) isolated enzymatically. The CMs were then ablated to varying extents from the inner or the outer surfaces, using a cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP). Afterwards, the ablated CMs were dewaxed and the 13C contents were determined by mass spectrometry. The incorporation of 13C in the cutin fraction was higher than in the wax fraction. The 13C content was highest in non-ablated, dewaxed CM (DCM) and decreased as ablation depth from the inner surface increased. There was no change in 13C content when ablation was carried out from the outer surface. As fruit development proceeded, more 13C label was found towards the middle of the DCM. These results offered direct evidence for deposition of cutin being on the inner surface of the cuticle, resulting in a radial gradient in cuticular age—the most recent deposition (youngest) being on the inner cuticle surface (abutting the epidermal cell wall) and the earliest deposition (oldest) being on the outer surface (abutting the atmosphere).

Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (11) ◽  
pp. 421
Filomena Monica Vella ◽  
Roberto Calandrelli ◽  
Bruna Laratta

The biochemical changes that occur during the growth and ripening of fruit and vegetable tissues, especially for color and firmness, are the most important factors affecting the quality of fresh products. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo, L.) is one of the main economically important fruits in the world and its quality parameters, e.g., sweetness, nutritional factors, and texture, influence consumer preferences. Hence, these two features, appearance and texture changes, were investigated in three different genotypes of netted melon, all characterized by an extended shelf life but with different ripening phases. In particular, in all melon cultivars, the cell wall-modifying enzymatic activities and indicators of softening as well as total polyphenols, ortho-diphenols, flavonoids, and tannins, and antioxidant activity were studied. One variety with excellent shelf-life displayed the best nutritional and healthy qualities, in the early stages of ripening, and the lowest degree of browning. The lytic enzyme activities were reduced in the initial stages and after they increased gradually until the overripe stage, with the same trend for all varieties under investigation. The antioxidant activities declined with increasing time of ripeness in all genotypes. The outcomes confirm that the activities of both classes examined, antioxidant and cell wall-modifying enzymes, may vary significantly during ripeness depending on the genotype, suggesting the involvement in determining the postharvest behavior of these fruits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (1) ◽  
Ming-yue Li ◽  
Hai-qing Ren ◽  
Yu-rong Wang ◽  
Ying-chun Gong ◽  
Yong-dong Zhou

AbstractTwenty-year-old Pinus radiata trees imported from New Zealand were investigated, and a comparison was made between the outerwood (rings 16–20) and corewood (rings 4–6) in terms of mechanical properties, anatomical characteristics, microfibril angle (MFA), relative crystallinity, crystallite size and lignin content to determine the relationship between their mechanical properties and microstructures. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the Pinus radiata outerwood were significantly better than those of the corewood. The outerwood had a modulus of rupture (MOR) of 106 MPa, a modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 11.4 GPa, and compressive strength parallel to the grain of 38.7 MPa, and the MOR, MOE and compressive strength parallel to the grain of the corewood were 78.9 MPa, 7.12 GPa and 29.3 MPa, respectively. The observed microstructures of the Pinus radiata outerwood and corewood were different, mainly due to differences in cell wall thickness, MFA, and relative crystallinity. The double wall thickness of the tracheid cells of the corewood and outerwood were 3.65 and 5.02 µm, respectively. The MFA data indicated that the average MFA of the outerwood was 14.0°, which was smaller than that of the corewood (22.3°). With X-ray diffraction, the relative crystallinity of the corewood was determined to be 35.7%, while that of the outerwood was 40.2%. However, the crystallite size of the outerwood cell wall shows no obvious difference from that of the corewood. Imaging FTIR spectroscopy showed a slightly higher relative content of lignin in the cell wall of the outerwood. The correlation between the microstructures and mechanical properties showed that the corewood with a thin cell wall, large MFA and low relative crystallinity had poor mechanical properties, while the outerwood with a thicker tracheid, smaller MFA and higher relative crystallinity had better mechanical properties. This means that the MFA, relative crystallinity and cell wall thickness synergically affect the mechanical properties of Pinus radiata in different radial locations.

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