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2022 ◽  
Vol 177 ◽  
pp. 114432
Author(s):  
Arnaud Besserer ◽  
Sebastien Ngwa Obame ◽  
Rodrigue Safou-Tchima ◽  
Safwan Saker ◽  
Isabelle Ziegler-Devin ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 186 ◽  
pp. 111837
Author(s):  
Yazhen Chen ◽  
Jing Yu ◽  
Hetong Lin ◽  
Yi Zheng ◽  
Zhongqi Fan ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 114332
Author(s):  
Qi Yin ◽  
Lu Kang ◽  
Yi Liu ◽  
Mirza Faisal Qaseem ◽  
Wenqi Qin ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Khushpreet Kaur ◽  
Sumedha Sharma ◽  
Sudhanshu Abhishek ◽  
Prabhdeep Kaur ◽  
Uttam C. Saini ◽  
...  

Bone tuberculosis is widely characterized by irreversible bone destruction caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Mycobacterium has the ability to adapt to various environmental stresses by altering its transcriptome in order to establish infection in the host. Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the transcriptional profile of M. tuberculosis during infection in the bone environment compared to axenic cultures of exponentially growing M.tb. In the current study, we characterized the in vivo transcriptome of M. tuberculosis within abscesses or necrotic specimens obtained from patients with bone TB using whole genome microarrays in order to gain insight into the M. tuberculosis adaptive response within this host microenvironment. A total of 914 mycobacterial genes were found to be significantly over-expressed and 1688 were repressed (fold change>2; p-value ≤ 0.05) in human bone TB specimens. Overall, the mycobacteria displayed a hypometabolic state with significant (p ≤ 0.05) downregulation of major pathways involved in translational machinery, cellular and protein metabolism and response to hypoxia. However, significant enrichment (p ≤ 0.05) of amino-sugar metabolic processes, membrane glycolipid biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis (serine, glycine, arginine and cysteine) and accumulation of mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex suggests possible mycobacterial survival strategies within the bone lesions by strengthening its cell wall and cellular integrity. Data were also screened for M.tb virulence proteins using Virulent-Pred and VICM-Pred tools, which revealed five genes (Rv1046c, Rv1230c, DppD, PE_PGRS26 and PE_PGRS43) with a possible role in the pathogenesis of bone TB. Next, an osteoblast cell line model for bone TB was developed allowing for significant intracellular multiplication of M.tb. Interestingly, three virulence genes (Rv1046c, DppD and PE_PGRS26) identified from human bone TB microarray data were also found to be overexpressed by intracellular M. tuberculosis in osteoblast cell lines. Overall, these data demonstrate that M. tuberculosis alters its transcriptome as an adaptive strategy to survive in the host and establish infection in bone. Additionally, the in vitro osteoblast model we describe may facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis of bone TB.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 77
Author(s):  
Chaohui Li ◽  
Weibo Sun ◽  
Shulin Cao ◽  
Rongxian Hou ◽  
Xiaogang Li ◽  
...  

Colletotrichum fructicola, the causal agent of pear anthracnose, causes significant annual economic losses. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signal transduction pathways that play a crucial role in mediating cellular responses to environmental and host signals in plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, we identified an ortholog of the FUS3/KSS1-related MAPK gene, CfMK1, and characterized its function in C. fructicola. The Cfmk1 deletion mutants exhibited poorly developed aerial hyphae, autolysis, no conidial mass or perithecia on solid plates. However, the conidiation of the Cfmk1 mutant in PDB liquid medium was normal compared with that of the wild type (WT). Conidia of the Cfmk1 mutant exhibited a reduced germination rate on glass slides or plant surfaces. The Cfmk1 deletion mutants were unable to form appressoria and lost the capacity to penetrate plant epidermal cells. The ability of the Cfmk1 mutants to infect pear leaves and fruit was severely reduced. Moreover, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the WT and Cfmk1 mutant was performed, and the results revealed 1886 upregulated and 1554 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the mutant. The DEGs were significantly enriched in cell wall and pathogenesis terms, which was consistent with the defects of the Cfmk1 mutant in cell wall integrity and plant infection. Overall, our data demonstrate that CfMK1 plays critical roles in the regulation of aerial hyphal growth, asexual and sexual reproduction, autolysis, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262500
Author(s):  
Sophie Weber ◽  
Philipp M. Grande ◽  
Lars M. Blank ◽  
Holger Klose

With their ability of CO2 fixation using sunlight as an energy source, algae and especially microalgae are moving into the focus for the production of proteins and other valuable compounds. However, the valorization of algal biomass depends on the effective disruption of the recalcitrant microalgal cell wall. Especially cell walls of Chlorella species proved to be very robust. The wall structures that are responsible for this robustness have been studied less so far. Here, we evaluate different common methods to break up the algal cell wall effectively and measure the success by protein and carbohydrate release. Subsequently, we investigate algal cell wall features playing a role in the wall’s recalcitrance towards disruption. Using different mechanical and chemical technologies, alkali catalyzed hydrolysis of the Chlorella vulgaris cells proved to be especially effective in solubilizing up to 56 wt% protein and 14 wt% carbohydrates of the total biomass. The stepwise degradation of C. vulgaris cell walls using a series of chemicals with increasingly strong conditions revealed that each fraction released different ratios of proteins and carbohydrates. A detailed analysis of the monosaccharide composition of the cell wall extracted in each step identified possible factors for the robustness of the cell wall. In particular, the presence of chitin or chitin-like polymers was indicated by glucosamine found in strong alkali extracts. The presence of highly ordered starch or cellulose was indicated by glucose detected in strong acidic extracts. Our results might help to tailor more specific efforts to disrupt Chlorella cell walls and help to valorize microalgae biomass.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniela Feltrim ◽  
Bandana Gupta ◽  
Seetaramanjaneyulu Gundimeda ◽  
Eduardo Kiyota ◽  
Adilson Pereira Domingues Júnior ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Mengyan Li ◽  
Hanying Wang ◽  
Juqing Deng ◽  
Jianxing Liu ◽  
...  

Abstract The mechanism of fungal cell wall synthesis and assembly is still unclear. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and pathogenic fungi are conserved in cell wall construction and response to stress signals, and often respond to cell wall stress through activated cell wall integrity (CWI) pathways. Whether the YLR358C open reading frame regulates CWI remains unclear. This study found that the growth of S. cerevisiae with YLR358C knockout was significantly inhibited on the medium containing different concentrations of cell wall interfering agents Calcofluor White (CFW), Congo Red (CR) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). CFW staining showed that the cell wall chitin was down-regulated, and transmission electron microscopy also observed a decrease in cell wall thickness. Transcriptome sequencing and analysis showed that YLR358C gene may be involved in the regulation of CWI signaling pathway. It was found by qRT-PCR that WSC3, SWI4 and HSP12 were differentially expressed after YLR358C was knocked out. The above results suggest that YLR358C may regulate the integrity of the yeast cell walls and has some potential for application in fermentation.


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