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Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 198
Rashidah Baharudin ◽  
Muhiddin Ishak ◽  
Azliana Muhamad Yusof ◽  
Sazuita Saidin ◽  
Saiful Effendi Syafruddin ◽  

The aims were to profile the DNA methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore cancer-specific methylation biomarkers. Fifty-four pairs of CRCs and the adjacent normal tissues were subjected to Infinium Human Methylation 450K assay and analysed using ChAMP R package. A total of 26,093 differentially methylated probes were identified, which represent 6156 genes; 650 probes were hypermethylated, and 25,443 were hypomethylated. Hypermethylated sites were common in CpG islands, while hypomethylated sites were in open sea. Most of the hypermethylated genes were associated with pathways in cancer, while the hypomethylated genes were involved in the PI3K-AKT signalling pathway. Among the identified differentially methylated probes, we found evidence of four potential probes in CRCs versus adjacent normal; HOXA2 cg06786372, OPLAH cg17301223, cg15638338, and TRIM31 cg02583465 that could serve as a new biomarker in CRC since these probes were aberrantly methylated in CRC as well as involved in the progression of CRC. Furthermore, we revealed the potential of promoter methylation ADHFE1 cg18065361 in differentiating the CRC from normal colonic tissue from the integrated analysis. In conclusion, aberrant DNA methylation is significantly involved in CRC pathogenesis and is associated with gene silencing. This study reports several potential important methylated genes in CRC and, therefore, merit further validation as novel candidate biomarker genes in CRC.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Rui Fu ◽  
Xinxia Luo ◽  
Yan Ding ◽  
Shiwen Guo

<b><i>Objective:</i></b> Methyltransferase-like 7B (METTL7B) is a member of methyltransferase-like family. Little is known about the exact role of METTL7B in cancer. This study aims to investigate the role of METTL7B in gliomas. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The expression of METTL7B in glioma and adjacent normal tissues were examined by using TCGA, Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database, and clinical tissues. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The results showed that METTL7B was highly expressed in glioma. Patients with high levels of METTL7B usually had poor survival in glioma, especially in low-grade glioma (LGG). Data from CGGA showed that METTL7B was an independent risk factor of glioma and can be used to evaluate the survival time of glioma patients. Hypomethylation in the METTL7B CpG islands was lower in LGG, and all the hypomethylated METTL7B islands were correlated with poor LGG survival. Furthermore, METTL7B levels were correlated with high numbers of tumor infiltrated immune cells in glioma, especially in LGG. ). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis found METTL7B was correlated with leukocyte proliferation, T-cell proliferation, peptidase activity, lymphocyte activation, etc. TCGA and CGGA database analysis showed that there were 1,546 and 1,117 genes that had a synergistic effect with METTL7B in glioma, respectively, and there were 372 genes overlapped between the 2 groups, including PD-L1. Data from clinical tissues also showed PD-L1 was highly expressed in glioma tissues and was positively correlated with METTL7B. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our study suggested that METTL7B was a potential prognostic biomarker for glioma and other cancers, and it may act as an oncogenic driver and may be a potential therapeutic target in human cancer, especially in LGG.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 830
Karpiński Paweł ◽  
Sąsiadek Maria Małgorzata

The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) can be regarded as the most notable emanation of epigenetic instability in cancer. Since its discovery in the late 1990s, CIMP has been extensively studied, mainly in colorectal cancers (CRC) and gliomas. Consequently, knowledge on molecular and pathological characteristics of CIMP in CRC and other tumour types has rapidly expanded. Concordant and widespread hypermethylation of multiple CpG islands observed in CIMP in multiple cancers raised hopes for future epigenetically based diagnostics and treatments of solid tumours. However, studies on CIMP in solid tumours were hampered by a lack of generalisability and reproducibility of epigenetic markers. Moreover, CIMP was not a satisfactory marker in predicting clinical outcomes. The idea of targeting epigenetic abnormalities such as CIMP for cancer therapy has not been implemented for solid tumours, either. Twenty-one years after its discovery, we aim to cover both the fundamental and new aspects of CIMP and its future application as a diagnostic marker and target in anticancer therapies.

2021 ◽  
Phillip Wyss ◽  
Carol Song ◽  
Minou Bina

In mammals, Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) regulate a subset of genes in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. In both human and mouse, previous studies identified a set of CpG-rich motifs that occurred as clusters in ICRs and germline Differentially Methylated Regions (gDMRs). These motifs consist of the ZFP57 binding site (ZFBS) overlapping a subset of MLL binding units known as MLL morphemes. Furthermore, by creating plots for displaying the density of these overlaps, it became possible to locate known and candidate ICRs in mouse and human genomic DNA. Since genomic imprinting impacts many developmental and key physiological processes, we performed genome-wide analyses to create plots displaying the density of the CpG-rich motifs (ZFBS-morph overlaps) along Bos Taurus chromosomal DNA. We tailored our datasets so that they could be displayed on the UCSC genome browser (the build bosTau8). On the genome browser, we could view the ZFP57 binding sites, the ZFBS-morph overlaps, and peaks in the density-plots in the context of cattle RefSeq Genes, Non-Cow RefSeq Genes, CpG islands, and Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our datasets revealed the correspondence of peaks in plots to known and deduced ICRs in Bos Taurus genomic DNA. We illustrate that by uploading our datasets onto the UCSC genome browser, we could discover candidate ICRs in cattle DNA. In enlarged views, we could pinpoint the genes in the vicinity of candidate ICRs and thus discover potential imprinted genes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Liana Carla Albuquerque Peres Martinho

Obesity is a multifactorial health problem characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in the body and affects approximately 338 million children and adolescents worldwide. For this reason, this study consisted of a literature review to investigate how the causes and treatments of pediatric obesity are being addressed in light of epigenetic modulation as a factor in metabolic programming. For this, preferentially original articles published in English between the years 2017 to 2021 in the PubMed and Scholar Google databases were searched using the epigenetics descriptors; epigenetic modulation; child obesity; metabolic syndrome, combined with each other. A total of 54,000 articles were returned to searches in PubMed and 16,107,000 in Scholar Google. Fewer than 500 studies jointly addressed epigenetics and aspects of obesity or metabolic syndromes in childhood. Only 14 works matched the search criteria. The most discussed epigenetic mechanism in the literature is DNA methylation, whose rates observed mainly in CpG islands of promoter regions in several genes contribute to the prevention and early diagnosis of obesity and other pediatric comorbidities even before birth, based on the correlation between the epigenetic marks, maternal and paternal health and anthropometric indices. Although experimental studies on infant metabolic programming are scarce, existing knowledge suggests that environmental, nutritional, and energy expenditure changes are capable of modulating the epigenome and reversing marks that induce susceptibility to metabolic comorbidities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Duan Zeng ◽  
Shen He ◽  
Nan Zhao ◽  
Manji Hu ◽  
Jie Gao ◽  

Based on our previous studies and other evidence, miR-124 is an important biomarker and therapeutic target for major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to clarify the role of miR-124 methylation in MDD and antidepressant effects from the perspective of epigenetics. MethylTarget™ was used to detect methylation levels of the three miR-124 precursor genes (MIR124-1, MIR124-2, and MIR124-3) in 33 pre- and post-treatment MDD patients and 33 healthy controls. A total of 11 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands in the three miR-124 precursor genes, including 222 CpG sites, were detected. All CpG islands were hypomethylated in MDD patients when compared to healthy controls and seven CpG regions were still identified with a statistically significant difference after Bonferroni correction. In addition, 137 of 222 CpG sites were found a statistical difference between MDD patients and controls, and 40 CpG sites were still statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. After performing the LASSO regression model, seven biomarkers with differential methylation among 40 CpG sites were identified. Mean methylation score was lower in MDD patients (z = −5.84, p = 5.16E-9). The AUC value reached 0.917 (95% CI: 0.854–0.981) to discriminate MDD and controls. No changes in methylation of the three miR-124 precursor genes were found in MDD patients following antidepressant treatment. The methylation of miR-124 could be a promising diagnostic biomarker for MDD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (51) ◽  
Jun-Yeong Lee ◽  
Ian Davis ◽  
Elliot H. H. Youth ◽  
Jonghwan Kim ◽  
Gary Churchill ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
Yanjuan Cao ◽  
Qiang Zhang ◽  
Zuwei Yan ◽  
Xiaoqing Zhao

Background: Introns are ubiquitous in pre-mRNA but are often overlooked. They also play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Objective and Method : We mainly use the improved Smith-Waterman local alignment approach to compare the optimal matching regions between introns and mRNA sequences in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) genes with high and low expression. Results We found that the relative matching frequency distributions of all genes lie exactly between highly and lowly expressed genes, indicating that introns in highly and lowly expressed genes have different biological functions. Highly expressed genes have higher matching strengths on mRNA sequences than genes expressed at lower levels; the remarkably matched regions appear in UTR regions, particularly in the 3'UTR. The optimal matching frequency distributions have obvious differences in functional regions of the translation initiation and termination sites in highly and lowly expressed genes. The mRNA sequences with CpG islands tend to have stronger relative matching frequency distributions, especially in highly expressed genes. Additionally, the sequence characteristics of the optimal matched segments are consistent with those of the miRNAs, and they are considered a type of functional RNA segment. Conclusion: Introns in highly and lowly expressed genes contribute to the recognition translation initiation sites and translation termination sites. Moreover, our results suggest that the potential matching relationships between introns and mRNA sequences in highly and lowly expressed genes are significantly different and indicate that the matching strength correlates with the ability of introns to enhance gene expression.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3435
Ewa Nowak ◽  
Ilona Bednarek

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs during the pathological process associated with tumor progression and is considered to influence and promote the metastatic cascade. Characterized by loss of cell adhesion and apex base polarity, EMT enhances cell motility and metastasis. The key markers of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition are proteins characteristic of the epithelial phenotype, e.g., E-cadherin, cytokeratins, occludin, or desmoplakin, the concentration and activity of which are reduced during this process. On the other hand, as a result of acquiring the characteristics of mesenchymal cells, an increased amount of N-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, or vitronectin is observed. Importantly, epithelial cells undergo partial EMT where some of the cells show both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. The significant influence of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms is observed in the gene expression involved in EMT. Among the epigenetic modifications accompanying incorrect genetic reprogramming in cancer are changes in the level of DNA methylation within the CpG islands and posttranslational covalent changes of histone proteins. All observed modifications, which are stable but reversible changes, affect the level of gene expression leading to the development and progression of the disease, and consequently affect the uncontrolled growth of the population of cancer cells.

2021 ◽  
Wei Lv ◽  
Xiaoguang Pan ◽  
Peng Han ◽  
Ziyu Wang ◽  
Hao Yuan ◽  

AbstractCell free extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) is evolving as a potential biomarker in liquid biopsies for disease diagnosis. In this study, an optimized next generation sequencing-based Circle-Seq method was developed to investigate urinary cell free eccDNA (ucf-eccDNA) from 28 adult healthy volunteers (mean age = 28, 19 males/ 9 females). The genomic distributions and sequence compositions of ucf-eccDNAs were comprehensively characterized. Approximately 1.2 million unique ucf-eccDNAs are identified, covering 14.9% of the human genome. Comprehensive characterization of ucf-eccDNAs show that ucf-eccDNAs contain higher GC content than flanking genomic regions. Most eccDNAs are less than 1000 bp and present four pronounced peaks at 203, 361, 550 and 728 bp, indicating the association between eccDNAs and the numbers of intact nucleosomes. Analysis of genomic distribution of ucf-eccDNAs show that eccDNAs are found in all chromosomes but enriched in chromosomes i.e. chr.17, 19 and 20 with high density of protein-codding genes, CpG islands, SINE and simple repeat elements. Lastly, analysis of sequence motif signatures at eccDNA junction sites reveal that direct repeats (DRs) are commonly found, indicating a potential role of DRs in eccDNA biogenesis. This work underscores the deep sequencing analysis of ucf-eccDNAs and provides a valuable reference resource for exploring potential applications of ucf-eccDNA as diagnostic biomarkers of urogenital disorders in the future.Significance StatementExtrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) is an important genetic element and a biomarker for disease diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive characterization of urinary cell free eccDNA (ucf-eccDNA) in 28 heathy subjects. Over one million ucf-eccDNAs are identified. Ucf-eccDNAs are characterized as high GC content. The size of most ucf-eccDNAs is less than 1000 bp and enriched in four peaks resembling the size of single, double, triple, and quadruple nucleosomes. The genomic distribution of ucf-eccDNAs is enriched in generic regions, protein-coding genes, Alu, CpG islands, SINE and simple repeats. Sequence motif analysis of ucf-eccDNA junctions identified simple direct repeats (DRs) commonly presented in most eccDNAs, suggesting potential roles of DRs in eccDNA biogenesis.

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