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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Ehsan ◽  
M. U. Ijaz ◽  
A. Ashraf ◽  
S. Sarwar ◽  
A. Samad ◽  

Abstract Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
N. Ahmad ◽  
S. M. Hussain ◽  
S. M. Azam ◽  
M. M. Shahzad ◽  
A. Noureen ◽  

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC’s 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC’s 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. M. Ali ◽  
M. T. Baig ◽  
A. Huma ◽  
S. Ibrahim ◽  
S. A. Khan ◽  

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
E. Madrigal-Bujaidar ◽  
P. Gómez-González ◽  
S. Camacho-Cantera ◽  
J. A. Morales-González ◽  
E. Madrigal-Santillán ◽  

Abstract The present research was made to determine the micronuclei and cytotoxic capacity of the antidepressant venlafaxine in an in vivo acute and subchronic assays in mouse. In the first study, we administered once 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg of the drug, and included a negative and a daunorubicin treated group. Observations were daily made during four days. The subchronic assay lasted 5 weeks with daily administration of venlafaxine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) plus a negative and an imipramine administered groups. Observations were made each week. In the first assay results showed no micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) increase, except with the high dose at 72 h. The strongest cytotoxic effect was found with 250 mg/kg at 72 h (a 51% cytotoxic effect in comparison with the mean control level). In the subchronic assay no MNPE increase was found; however, with the highest dose a significant increase of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in the last three weeks (a mean of 51% respect to the mean control value). A cytotoxic effect with the two high doses in the last two weeks was observed (a polychromatic erythrocyte mean decrease of 52% respect to the mean control value). Results suggest caution with venlafaxine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaozhe Yi ◽  
Xingwen Wang ◽  
Lan Wu ◽  
Mengyue Wang ◽  
Liu Yang ◽  

Artemisia argyi is a valuable traditional medicinal plant in Asia. The essential oil from its leaves is rich in terpenoids and has been used to enhance health and well-being. In China, the market scale of industries related to A. argyi has attained tens of billions of Chinese Yuan. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family is one of the largest transcription factors families in plants that plays crucial roles in diverse biological processes and is an essential regulatory component of terpenoid biosynthesis. However, the bHLH TFs and their regulatory roles in A. argyi remain unknown. Here, 53 AarbHLH genes were identified from the transcriptome of A. argyi and were classified into 15 subfamilies based on the classification of bHLH proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MEME analysis showed that the conserved motif 1 and motif 2 constituted the most conserved bHLH domain and distributed in most AarbHLH proteins. Additionally, integrated analysis of the expression profiles of AarbHLH genes and the contents of targeted terpenoids in different tissues group and JA-treated group were performed. Eleven up-regulated AarbHLHs and one down-regulated AarbHLH were screened as candidate genes that may participate in the regulation of terpenoid biosynthesis (TPS-AarbHLHs). Correlation analysis between gene expression and terpenoid contents indicated that the gene expression of these 12 TPS-AarbHLHs was significantly correlated with the content changes of 1,8-cineole or β-caryophyllene. Protein–protein interaction networks further illustrated that these TPS-AarbHLHs might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in A. argyi. This finding provides a basis to further investigate the regulation mechanism of AarbHLH genes in terpenoid biosynthesis, and will be helpful to improve the quality of A. argyi.

2022 ◽  
Nazik M.E. Mustafa ◽  
Shahenaz Satti ◽  
Nafisa A. Osman ◽  
Ahmed A.Gameel ◽  
Tarig M. El-hadiyah

Abstract The majority of people in Africa receive their basic health care through herbal treatments. Herbal medicine may negatively impact fetal development irreparably. This study examined the teratogenic potential of Solenstemma argel extract in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats were treated with Solenstemma argel from 7th to 16th day of gestation. The dosage used was 250 mg/kg, intraperitoneal.Solenstemma argel extract treated group showed fetal abnormalities appeared as body hemorrhage, limbs abnormalities and resorption of fetuses. These appears in 25% of the fetuses (P-value = 0.01) which is significantly differed from control group. Furthermore, histopathological findings of liver sections from fetuses of Solenstemma argel - treated mothers showed loose liver texture and hepatocytes hemorrhage.In this study, we conclude that the use Solenstemma argel extract during the organogenesis period in pregnant rats has the potential to cause teratogenic effects, as well as abnormalities in liver histopathology.

Dan Wang ◽  
Dazhi Long ◽  
Jiegang Zhou ◽  
Ziqiang Dong ◽  
Guiming Huang

Background: Dexmedetomidine has been reported to induce anti-apoptotic effects and metastatic progression in lung cancer. In the current investigation, the effect of β-Caryophyllene on dexmedetomidine induced cell proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and tumor growth in mice was studied. Methods: A549 cell line was cultured with either dexmedetomidine alone or together with β-Caryophyllene for 24 h and analysed for cell proliferation with MTT assay. ELISA based kit was used to determine apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Western blotting was used to determine expression levels of target proteins. The induction of experimental lung tumor in rat model was achieved through the injection of A549 tumor cells subcutaneously into the middle left side of the mice after anesthetization with pentobarbital (35 mg/kg) at 2.8 × 106 cells in 400 μl of PBS. Result: We found that β-Caryophyllene exerts the anti-proliferative effects on A549 cells. Furthermore, β-Caryophyllene significantly prevents apoptotic cell death and causes up-regulation of PGC-1α and TFAM compared to dexmedetomidine treated cells. We observed that β-Caryophyllene suppressed tumor development in mice significantly compared to dexmedetomidine treated group without changing body weight.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Nabamita Boruah ◽  
Chongtham Sovachandra Singh ◽  
Pooja Swargiary ◽  
Hughbert Dkhar ◽  
Anupam Chatterjee

Abstract Background Raw areca nut (RAN) consumption induces oral, esophageal and gastric cancers, which are significantly associated with the overexpression of pituitary tumor transforming gene 1/securin and chromosomal instability (CIN). An association of Securin/PTTG1 upregulation and gastric cancer in human was also demonstrated earlier. Since the molecular mechanism underlying securin upregulation remains unclear, this study intended to investigate the association of securin upregulation with the Rb-E2F1 circuit and epigenetic histone (H3) modification patterns both globally and in the promoter region of the securin gene. Methods Six groups of mice were used, and in the treated group, each mouse consumed 1 mg of RAN extract with lime per day ad libitum in the drinking water for 60 days, after which the dose was increased by 1 mg every 60 days. Histopathological evaluation of stomach tissues was performed and securin expression was analysed by immunoblotting as well as by immunohistochemistry. ChIP-qPCR assays were performed to evaluate the recruitment of different histone modifications in the core promoter region of securin gene as well as its upstream and downstream regions. Results All mice developed gastric cancer with securin overexpression after 300 days of feeding. Immunohistochemistry data revealed hyperphosphorylation of Rb and upregulation of E2F1 in the RAN-treated samples. Increased trimethylation of H3 lysine 4 and acetylation of H3 lysine 9 and 18 both globally and in the promoter region of the securin gene were observed by increasing the levels of lysine-N-methyltransferase 2A, lysine-acetyltransferase, EP-300 and PCAF after RAN treatment. ChIP-qPCR data revealed that the quantity of DNA fragments retrieved from the immunoprecipitated samples was maximum in the -83 to -192 region than further upstream and the downstream of the promoter for H3K4Me3, H3K9ac, H3K18ac and H3K9me3. Conclusions RAN-mediated pRb-inactivation induced securin upregulation, a putative E2F1 target, by inducing misregulation in chromatin remodeling in its promoter region, which led to transcriptional activation and subsequent development of chromosomal instability. Therefore, present results have led to the hypothesis that RAN-induced changes in the epigenetic landscape, securin overexpression and subsequent elevation of chromosomal instability is probably byproducts of inactivation of the pRb pathway.

Heba Bassiony ◽  
Akmal A. El-Ghor ◽  
Taher A. Salaheldin ◽  
Salwa Sabet ◽  
Mona M. Mohamed

AbstractNanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on cellular and molecular level. The present study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes and DNA damage effects of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) on female albino mice model with Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC). Magnetite nanoparticles coated with L-ascorbic acid (size ~ 25.0 nm) were synthesized and characterized. Mice were treated with MNPs day by day, intraperitoneally (IP), intramuscularly (IM), or intratumorally (IT). Autopsy samples were taken from the solid tumor, thigh muscle, liver, kidney, lung, spleen, and brain for assessment of iron content, histopathological examination, and genotoxicity using comet assay. The liver, spleen, lung, and heart had significantly higher iron content in groups treated IP. On the other hand, tumor, muscles, and the liver had significantly higher iron content in groups treated IT. MNPs induced a significant DNA damage in IT treated ESC. While a significant DNA damage was detected in the liver of the IP treated group, but no significant DNA damage could be detected in the brain. Histopathological findings in ESC revealed a marked tumor necrosis, 50% in group injected IT but 40% in group injected IP and 20% only in untreated tumors. Other findings include inflammatory cell infiltration, dilatation, and congestion of blood vessels of different organs of treated groups in addition to appearance of metastatic cancer cells in the liver of non-treated tumor group. MNPs could have an antitumor effect but it is recommended to be injected intratumorally to be directed to the tumor tissues and reduce its adverse effects on healthy tissues.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Zhixin Lv ◽  
Limuge Che ◽  
Yiri Du ◽  
Jianshe Yu ◽  
Enboer Su ◽  

ObjectiveTo study the effect of Eerdun Wurile (EW), a traditional Mongolian medicine, on the cognitive function of rats by activating the IRS-PI3K-AKT-GLUT4 pathway in an animal model of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD).MethodsFifty clean-grade adults Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were assigned to one of five groups: (1) a control group with no anesthesia (Group C), (2) a POCD model group with anesthesia only (Group P), (3) POCD group with low-dose EW treated (Group L), (4) a POCD group with high-dose EW treated (Group H), and (5) a POCD model group with dexmedetomidine treated (Group D) for positive control. The study started 7 days after all rats had acclimated to housing. Rats were trained in the Morris Water Maze navigation 5 days before surgery. All rats underwent the same maze for navigation and spatial exploration experiments on the preoperative day 1 and postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and their learning and memory abilities were assessed. At the end of the water maze experiment, rats were sacrificed to obtain hippocampal tissue. The mRNA levels of IRS-2, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 were measured in the hippocampus by real-time PCR, and the expression of IRS-2, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 protein in the hippocampus was determined by Western blotting to investigate the potential mechanisms at the molecular level.ResultsCompared to control Group C, Group P, L, H, and D showed prolonged escape latency (P < 0.05) and decreased number of times to cross the platform (P < 0.05) at 1, 3 and 5 days after surgery. Compared to Group P, Group L, H, and D showed a decrease in escape latency with an increased number of crossing the platform at all-time points after surgery (P < 0.05). Within individual P, L, H, and D groups, escape latencies decreased (P < 0.05) and the number of times that the platform was crossed increased (P < 0.05) between postoperative days 3 and 5 compared to postoperative 1 day. Compared to Group C, the mRNA expression of IRS-2, PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 in the hippocampus of P, L, H, and D groups were decreased (P < 0.05). Compared to Group P, IRS-2, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 in the hippocampus of L, H, and D groups were increased (P < 0.05). Compared with Group D, the expression levels of IRS-2 and AKT in both L and H groups were higher. The expression level of PI3K in Group L was also higher (P < 0.05) vs Group D. The expression of AKT mRNA in Group H was higher than in Group L (P < 0.05). Compared to Group C, the p-IRS-2/IRS-2 ratio in the hippocampus of Group P was higher than that of Group C (P < 0.05). Compared to Group P, the ratios of p-IRS-2/IRS-2 in Group L, Group H, and Group D were lower, and the ratios of the p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT, and p-GLUT4/GLUT4 were higher (P < 0.05).ConclusionAdministration of EW showed the effect on the signaling pathway in rats with POCD. The therapeutic effect was better in the low-dose group. This could be related to the insulin downstream signal molecule PI3K and the IRS-PI3K-AKT-GLUT4 signaling pathway.

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