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Updated Friday, 25 June 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Heike Wolff ◽  
Marc Jakoby ◽  
Lisa Stephan ◽  
Eva Koebke ◽  
Martin Hülskamp

The Arabidopsis AAA ATPase SKD1 is essential for ESCRT-dependent endosomal sorting by mediating the disassembly of the ESCRTIII complex in an ATP-dependent manner. In this study, we show that SKD1 localizes to messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes upon heat stress. Consistent with this, the interactome of SKD1 revealed differential interactions under normal and stress conditions and included membrane transport proteins as well as proteins associated with RNA metabolism. Localization studies with selected interactome proteins revealed that not only RNA associated proteins but also several ESCRTIII and membrane trafficking proteins were recruited to messenger ribonucleoprotein granules after heat stress.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liping Xu ◽  
Yanbo Hu ◽  
Guangze Jin ◽  
Pei Lei ◽  
Liqun Sang ◽  
...  

Various environmental stresses strongly influence plant development. Among these stresses is drought, which is a serious threat that can reduce agricultural productivity and obstruct plant growth. Although the mechanism of plants in response to drought has been studied extensively, the adaptive strategies of Amygdalus mira (Koehne) Yü et Lu grown in drought and rewatered habitats remain undefined. Amygdalus mira from the Tibetan Plateau has outstanding nutritional and medicinal values and can thrive in extreme drought. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses in leaves of A. mira were investigated during drought and recovery period. The changes in plant growth, photosynthesis, enzymes, and non-enzymatic antioxidant under drought and rewatering were also analyzed in leaves. Compared with controls, A. mira showed stronger adaptive and resistant characteristics to drought. In addition, the proteomic technique was also used to study drought tolerance mechanisms in A. mira leaves. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using mass spectrometry. Accordingly, 103 proteins involved in 10 functional categories: cytoskeleton dynamics, energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, transcription and translation, transport, stress and defense, molecular chaperones, other materials metabolism, and unknown function were identified. These results showed that an increase of stress-defense-related proteins in leaves after drought treatment contributed to coping with drought. Importantly, A. mira developed an adaptive mechanism to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), including enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant contents, reducing energy, and adjusting the efficiency of gas exchanges. These results may help to understand the acclimation of A. mira to drought.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yi Wei ◽  
Zhuo Chen ◽  
Xin-Ke Zhang ◽  
Chang-Qing Duan ◽  
Qiu-Hong Pan

Glycosidic aroma compounds are the important precursors of volatile aroma in grapes, and they can be added with odorous aglycones via enzyme- or acid-catalyzed hydrolysis during wine fermentation and storage. Developing an analytical method for intact glycosides can provide the possibility to study the accumulation of these aroma precursors in grape berries. For this purpose, a Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS). database based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was built, covering multiple aglycone classes. Subsequently, the profiles of glycosidic aroma compounds in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Muscat Blanc, Riesling, and Chardonnay berries during maturation were investigated. Pentosyl-hexosides were the most abundant glycosides in all three varieties. Both composition and concentration of glycosidic aroma compounds varied obviously among grape varieties. Except for monoterpenol pentosyl-hexosides, most glycosides were kept almost stable in their concentrations during berry maturation. This research provides an approach to understand the variation of glycosidic aroma components from the perspective of aglycones and glycosides.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Laura Serna

Stomata arose about 400 million years ago when plants left their aquatic environment. The last step of stomatal development is shared by all plant groups, and it implies a symmetrical cell division from the guard mother cell (GMC) to produce two guard cells (GCs) flanking a pore. In Arabidopsis, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MUTE controls this step, upregulating cell-cycle regulators of the GMC division, and immediately afterward, repressors of theses regulators like FAMA and FOUR LIPS. Recently, three grass MUTE orthologs (BdMUTE from Brachypodium distachyon, OsMUTE from rice, and ZmMUTE from maize) have been identified and characterized. Mutations in these genes disrupt GMC fate, with bdmute also blocking GC morphogenesis. However, because these genes also regulate subsidiary cell recruitment, which takes place before GMC division, their functions regulating GMC division and GC morphogenesis could be an indirect consequence of that inducing the recruitment of subsidiary cells. Comprehensive data evaluation indicates that BdMUTE, and probably grass MUTE orthologs, directly controls GMC fate. Although grass MUTE proteins, whose genes are expressed in the GMC, move between cells, they regulate GMC fate from the cells where they are transcribed. Grass MUTE genes also regulate GC morphogenesis. Specifically, OsMUTE controls GC shape by inducing OsFAMA expression. In addition, while SCs are not required for GMC fate progression, they are for GC maturation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhaohai Wang ◽  
Qiang Wang ◽  
Lingxia Wei ◽  
Yan Shi ◽  
Ting Li ◽  
...  

Functional inactivation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase 1 (UAP1) induces defense response-related lesion-mimic spots and subsequent early senescence in every newly grown leaf of the rice mutant uap1 after a short period's normal growth. However, the molecular mechanism of these leaves sustaining the short period's survival is still unknown. Phenotypic and molecular studies show that defense response-related lesion-mimic spots and early leaf senescence appear on the normally grown uap1 leaf and aggravate with the growth time. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that UAP proteins are evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes, and there exists UAP2 protein except UAP1 protein in many higher organisms, including rice. Rice UAP2 and UAP1 proteins present high sequence identities and very similar predicted 3D structures. Transcriptional expression profile of the UAP2 gene decreases with the appearance and aggravating of leaf spots and early senescence of uap1, implying the role of the UAP2 gene in maintaining the initial normal growth of uap1 leaves. Enzymatic experiments verified that the UAP2 protein performs highly similar UAP enzymatic activity with the UAP1 protein, catalyzing the biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc. And these two UAP proteins are found to have the same subcellular localization in the cytoplasm, where they most presumably perform their functions. Overexpression of the UAP2 gene in uap1 plants succeeds to rescue their leaf mutant phenotype to normal, providing direct evidence for the similar function of the UAP2 gene as the UAP1 gene. The UAP2 gene is mainly expressed in the young leaf stage for functions, while the UAP1 gene is highly expressed during the whole leaf developmental stages. Based on these findings, it is suggested that UAP2 and UAP1 play key roles in rice leaf survival during its development in a synergetic manner, protecting the leaf from early senescence.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Massimiliano D’Imperio ◽  
Francesco Fabiano Montesano ◽  
Nicola Montemurro ◽  
Angelo Parente

The aim of this study was to test Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass residues (leaves and fibers) as growing media component to improve the nutritional quality of two different brassica microgreens (Mizuna and Rapini). We hypothesized that addition of posidonia residues in the substrate would result in higher concentration of certain mineral nutrients in the edible parts of plants. Substrates were obtained by mixing leaves and fibers, each material at the rate of 25, 50 and 75% (v/v), with a peat based commercial substrate, that was also used at 100% rate as a control treatment. Two experiments were carried out (Experiment 1: Mizuna microgreens production in growth chamber conditions; Experiment 2: Mizuna and Rapini microgreens production in greenhouse conditions). Plant growth measurements and chemical analysis on edible parts (mineral tissue composition and main bioactive compounds - polyphenol, chlorophylls and carotenoids contents) were performed in order to evaluate the effects of the different substrates on growth and nutritional composition of brassica microgreens. In order to evaluate the consumer safety, daily intake, percentage of recommended daily allowance for I (RDA-I) and hazard quotient (HQ) for I intake through consumption of 50 and 100 g portions of Rapini microgreens were calculated. Posidonia in the growing media mixtures increased I and B content in edible parts of microgreens. The calculated HQ underlines the safety of these products. Results confirm the possibility to improve nutritional profile of brassica microgreens by using this natural material as a growing media component, resulting in a sustainable approach.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Menglin Shi ◽  
Lei Zhao ◽  
Yong Wang

Photorespiration plays an important role in maintaining normal physiological metabolism in higher plants and other oxygenic organisms, such as algae. The unicellular eukaryotic organism Chlamydomonas is reported to have a photorespiration system different from that in higher plants, and only two out of nine genes encoding photorespiratory enzymes have been experimentally characterized. Hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR), which is responsible for the conversion of hydroxypyruvate into glycerate, is poorly understood and not yet explored in Chlamydomonas. To identify the candidate genes encoding hydroxypyruvate reductases in Chlamydomonas (CrHPR) and uncover their elusive functions, we performed sequence comparison, enzyme activity measurement, subcellular localization, and analysis of knockout/knockdown strains. Together, we identify five proteins to be good candidates for CrHPRs, all of which are detected with the activity of hydroxypyruvate reductase. CrHPR1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent enzyme in mitochondria, may function as the major component of photorespiration. Its deletion causes severe photorespiratory defects. CrHPR2 takes part in the cytosolic bypass of photorespiration as the compensatory pathway of CrHPR1 for the reduction of hydroxypyruvate. CrHPR4, with NADH as the cofactor, may participate in photorespiration by acting as the chloroplastidial glyoxylate reductase in glycolate-quinone oxidoreductase system. Therefore, the results reveal that CrHPRs are far more complex than previously recognized and provide a greatly expanded knowledge base for studies to understand how CrHPRs perform their functions in photorespiration. These will facilitate both modification of photorespiration and genetic engineering for crop improvement by synthetic biology.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chunxiang Li ◽  
Minxuan Liu ◽  
Fengjie Sun ◽  
Xinyu Zhao ◽  
Mingyue He ◽  
...  

Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the earliest domesticated crops in the world. Weedy broomcorn millet [Panicum ruderale (Kitag.) Chang or Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale (Kitag.) Tzvel] is thought to be the descendant of the wild ancestor or the feral type of this cereal. The genealogical relationships and genetic divergence among these taxa have not been clarified. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure of weedy and cultivated broomcorn millets were investigated by using the high-throughput sequencing technology, i.e., the specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). Our analyses consistently revealed both the wild and the feral genotypes in the weedy broomcorn millets. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the genomic level provided useful evidence to distinguish the wild and the endoferal/exoferal types of weedy broomcorn millets. The genetic divergence revealed between the cultivated broomcorn millet from eastern Eurasia and those from central-western Eurasia was probably derived from either the genetic introgression from weedy broomcorn millets along the spread routes or the founder effect, while the limited gene flow of broomcorn millets from eastern and central-western Eurasia was probably due to the different uses of broomcorn millets and eating habits of the local people.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gurpreet Kaur ◽  
Mamta Pathak ◽  
Deepak Singla ◽  
Abhishek Sharma ◽  
Parveen Chhuneja ◽  
...  

Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a devastating disease that seriously affects its yield. Although there is currently no effective method to control the disease, breeding of resistant varieties is the most effective and economic option. Moreover, quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with resistance to YMD has not yet been reported. With the objective of mapping YMD resistance in bitter gourd, the susceptible parent “Punjab-14” and the resistant parent “PAUBG-6” were crossed to obtain F4 mapping population comprising 101 individuals. In the present study, the genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approach was used to develop the genetic linkage map. The map contained 3,144 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, consisted of 15 linkage groups, and it spanned 2415.2 cM with an average marker distance of 0.7 cM. By adopting the artificial and field inoculation techniques, F4:5 individuals were phenotyped for disease resistance in Nethouse (2019), Rainy (2019), and Spring season (2020). The QTL analysis using the genetic map and phenotyping data identified three QTLs qYMD.pau_3.1, qYMD.pau_4.1, and qYMD.pau_5.1 on chromosome 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Among these, qYMD.pau_3.1, qYMD.pau_4.1 QTLs were identified during the rainy season, explaining the 13.5 and 21.6% phenotypic variance respectively, whereas, during the spring season, qYMD.pau_4.1 and qYMD.pau_5.1 QTLs were observed with 17.5 and 22.1% phenotypic variance respectively. Only one QTL qYMD.pau_5.1 was identified for disease resistance under nethouse conditions with 15.6% phenotypic variance. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of QTLs associated with YMD resistance in bitter gourd using SNP markers. The information generated in this study is very useful in the future for fine-mapping and marker-assisted selection for disease resistance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yunlin Cao ◽  
Huimin Jia ◽  
Mengyun Xing ◽  
Rong Jin ◽  
Donald Grierson ◽  
...  

Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra), the most economically important fruit tree in the Myricaceae family, is a rich source of natural flavonoids. Recently the Chinese bayberry genome has been sequenced, and this provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of MrMYB genes from a whole genome view. In the present study, we performed the genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese bayberry and identified 174 MrMYB transcription factors (TFs), including 122 R2R3-MYBs, 43 1R-MYBs, two 3R-MYBs, one 4R-MYB, and six atypical MYBs. Collinearity analysis indicated that both syntenic and tandem duplications contributed to expansion of the MrMYB gene family. Analysis of transcript levels revealed the distinct expression patterns of different MrMYB genes, and those which may play important roles in leaf and flower development. Through phylogenetic analysis and correlation analyses, nine MrMYB TFs were selected as candidates regulating flavonoid biosynthesis. By using dual-luciferase assays, MrMYB12 was shown to trans-activate the MrFLS1 promoter, and MrMYB39 and MrMYB58a trans-activated the MrLAR1 promoter. In addition, overexpression of 35S:MrMYB12 caused a significant increase in flavonol contents and induced the expression of NtCHS, NtF3H, and NtFLS in transgenic tobacco leaves and flowers and significantly reduced anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in pale-pink or pure white flowers. This indicates that MrMYB12 redirected the flux away from anthocyanin biosynthesis resulting in higher flavonol content. The present study provides valuable information for understanding the classification, gene and motif structure, evolution and predicted functions of the MrMYB gene family and identifies MYBs regulating different aspects of flavonoid biosynthesis in Chinese bayberry.


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