In this study, the pool boiling performance of oxide nanofluid was investigated, the heating surface is a 5 × 30 mm stainless steel heating surface. Three kinds of nanofluids were selected to explore their critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC), which were TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3. We observed that these nanofluids enhanced CHF compared to R·O water, and Al2O3 case has the most significant enhancement (up to 66.7%), furthermore, the HTC was also enhanced. The number of bubbles in nanofluid case was relatively less than that in R·O water case, but the bubbles were much larger. The heating surface was characterized and it was found that there were nano-particles deposited, and surface roughness decreased. The wettability also decreased with the increase in CHF.
In a two-phase immersion cooling system, boiling on the spreader surface has been experimentally found to be non-uniform, and it is highly related to the surface temperature and the heat transfer coefficient. An experimentally obtained temperature-dependent boiling heat transfer coefficient has been applied to a numerical model to investigate the spreader's cooling performance. It is found that the surface temperature distribution becomes less uniform with higher input power. But it is more uniform when the thickness is increased. By defining the characteristic temperatures that represent different boiling regimes on the surface, the fraction of the surface area that has reached the critical heat flux has been numerically calculated, showing that increasing the thickness from 1 mm to 6 mm decreases the critical heat flux reached area by 23% at saturation liquid temperatures. Therefore, on the thicker spreader, more of the surface is utilized for nucleate boiling while localized hot regions that lead to surface dry-out are avoided. At a base temperature of 90 oC, the optimal thickness is found to be 4 mm, beyond which no significant improvement in heat removal can be obtained. Lower coolant temperatures can further increase the heat removal; it is reduced from an 18% improvement in the input power for the 1 mm case to only 3% in the 6 mm case for a coolant temperature drop of 24 oC. Therefore, a trade-off exists between the cost of maintaining the low liquid temperature and the increased heat removal capacity.
Artificial turf structures are increasingly used in closed areas and have to comply with the European fire standard for building products (EN ISO 13501-1). The main test to evaluate the fire performance of flooring products is the EN ISO 9239-1 radiant panel test. The test principle is to determine the critical heat flux of floorings exposed to a forced ignition and a specific heat flux profile. As large amounts of material are needed to perform the test, the development of a radiant panel test at reduced scale was considered. The experimental design methodology was implemented to mimic the heat flux profile. The fire performance of artificial turf structures was evaluated at both scales and the results were compared. The burnt lengths of the specimens and thus the critical heat flux are similar for both scales. Thus, the downscaled device could advantageously be used for high throughput development of artificial turf structures.