transfer coefficient
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Gabriela Regina Rosa GALIASSI ◽  
Maribel Valverde RAMIREZ

Heat treatment is one of the most used methods to preserve food, such as orange juices, which are an excellent source of ascorbic acid. To avoid vitamin C degradation and reduce loss, fast heating is recommended. This work aimed to determine the vitamin C content using the iodometric method and the convective heat transfer coefficient using the method of dimensionless numbers and the experimental method. Time and temperature were controlled throughout the experiment. In pasteurization, the solution was heated to 80 °C, heating lasted 50 minutes and cooling for 42 minutes. The convective heat transfer coefficient was evaluated in two regions of the cylindrical container: near the wall and in the central region. The graphic profile of the curve follows the same trend of the literature. The convective heat transfer coefficient is higher in the region near the wall. As time passes and temperature decreases, the central region tends to equilibrium, and the coefficient becomes more constant. The vitamin C content remained constant before and after pasteurization, so it was observed that the pasteurization did not cause ascorbic acid degradation since the heating step was fast in the heat treatment. As a result of the study, it was noted that studying the thermal behavior in the cooling of orange juice is extremely important to ensure its quality. It is pertinent to mention that in order to avoid this degradation and reduce its loss, it is necessary that in thermal treatments, fast heating is carried out and that the juice has low exposure to air and heat at the time of its preparation.

Kerntechnik ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Zhibo Zhang ◽  
Huai-En Hsieh ◽  
Yuan Gao ◽  
Shiqi Wang ◽  
Jia Gao ◽  

Abstract In this study, the pool boiling performance of oxide nanofluid was investigated, the heating surface is a 5 × 30 mm stainless steel heating surface. Three kinds of nanofluids were selected to explore their critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC), which were TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3. We observed that these nanofluids enhanced CHF compared to R·O water, and Al2O3 case has the most significant enhancement (up to 66.7%), furthermore, the HTC was also enhanced. The number of bubbles in nanofluid case was relatively less than that in R·O water case, but the bubbles were much larger. The heating surface was characterized and it was found that there were nano-particles deposited, and surface roughness decreased. The wettability also decreased with the increase in CHF.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 880
Tondepu Subbaiah ◽  
Ponnam Vijetha ◽  
Barsha Marandi ◽  
Kali Sanjay ◽  
Manickam Minakshi

Current density plays a major role in deciding the plant size, current efficiency, and energy consumption in electrorefining cells. In general, operating current density will be 40% of the limiting current density. Forced circulation of the electrolyte in the presence of promoters improves the mass transfer coefficient. In the present study, rectangular turbulence promoters are fitted at the bottom side of the cell to improve the mass transfer coefficient at the cathode support plate. The limiting current density technique is used to measure the mass transfer coefficient. The variables covered in the present study are the effects of flow rate, promoter height, and spacing among the promoters. The electrolyte consists of copper sulfate and sulphuric acid. At a regulated flow rate, the electrolyte is pumped from the recirculation tank to the cell through an intermediate overhead tank. The limiting current density increased with an increasing flow rate in the presence of promoters, and thus the overall mass transfer coefficient on the cathode support plate also improved. With an increase in the flow rate of the electrolyte from 6.67 × 10−6 to 153.33 m3/s, limiting current density increased from 356.8 to 488.8 A/m2 for spacing of 0.30 m, with a promoter height of 0.01 m. However, it is noteworthy that when the promoter height is increased from 0.01 to 0.07 m, the overall mass transfer coefficient is found to increase up to 60%, but with the further increase in the promoter height to 0.30 m the mass transfer coefficient starts to decrease. Therefore, the optimized cell parameters are established in this work. The current sustainable concept of employing rectangular turbulence promoters will bring benefits to any precious metal refining or electrowinning tank house electrolytes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Hiroaki Ogata ◽  
Katsuyuki Katahira ◽  
Aimi Enokizu-Ogawa ◽  
Yujiro Jingushi ◽  
Akiko Ishimatsu ◽  

Abstract Background Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) patients experience exacerbations more frequently than those with asthma or COPD alone. Since low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is known as a strong risk factor for severe exacerbation in COPD, DLCO or a transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide (KCO) is speculated to also be associated with the risk of exacerbations in ACO. Methods This study was conducted as an observational cohort survey at the National Hospital Organization Fukuoka National Hospital. DLCO and KCO were measured in 94 patients aged ≥ 40 years with a confirmed diagnosis of ACO. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the exacerbation-free rate over one year were estimated and compared across the levels of DLCO and KCO. Results Within one year, 33.3% of the cohort experienced exacerbations. After adjustment for potential confounders, low KCO (< 80% per predicted) was positively associated with the incidence of exacerbation (multivariable-adjusted HR = 3.71 (95% confidence interval 1.32–10.4)). The association between low DLCO (< 80% per predicted) and exacerbations showed similar trends, although it failed to reach statistical significance (multivariable-adjusted HR = 1.31 (95% confidence interval 0.55–3.11)). Conclusions Low KCO was a significant risk factor for exacerbations among patients with ACO. Clinicians should be aware that ACO patients with impaired KCO are at increased risk of exacerbations and that careful management in such a population is mandatory.

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