surface temperatures
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 173-197
Author(s):  
Manuel C. Almeida ◽  
Yurii Shevchuk ◽  
Georgiy Kirillin ◽  
Pedro M. M. Soares ◽  
Rita M. Cardoso ◽  
...  

Abstract. The complexity of the state-of-the-art climate models requires high computational resources and imposes rather simplified parameterization of inland waters. The effect of lakes and reservoirs on the local and regional climate is commonly parameterized in regional or global climate modeling as a function of surface water temperature estimated by atmosphere-coupled one-dimensional lake models. The latter typically neglect one of the major transport mechanisms specific to artificial reservoirs: heat and mass advection due to inflows and outflows. Incorporation of these essentially two-dimensional processes into lake parameterizations requires a trade-off between computational efficiency and physical soundness, which is addressed in this study. We evaluated the performance of the two most used lake parameterization schemes and a machine-learning approach on high-resolution historical water temperature records from 24 reservoirs. Simulations were also performed at both variable and constant water level to explore the thermal structure differences between lakes and reservoirs. Our results highlight the need to include anthropogenic inflow and outflow controls in regional and global climate models. Our findings also highlight the efficiency of the machine-learning approach, which may overperform process-based physical models in both accuracy and computational requirements if applied to reservoirs with long-term observations available. Overall, results suggest that the combined use of process-based physical models and machine-learning models will considerably improve the modeling of air–lake heat and moisture fluxes. A relationship between mean water retention times and the importance of inflows and outflows is established: reservoirs with a retention time shorter than ∼ 100 d, if simulated without inflow and outflow effects, tend to exhibit a statistically significant deviation in the computed surface temperatures regardless of their morphological characteristics.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 117
Author(s):  
Davide De Santis ◽  
Fabio Del Frate ◽  
Giovanni Schiavon

Evaluation of the impact of climate change on water bodies has been one of the most discussed open issues of recent years. The exploitation of satellite data for the monitoring of water surface temperatures, combined with ground measurements where available, has already been shown in several previous studies, but these studies mainly focused on large lakes around the world. In this work the water surface temperature characterization during the last few decades of two small–medium Italian lakes, Lake Bracciano and Lake Martignano, using satellite data is addressed. The study also takes advantage of the last space-borne platforms, such as Sentinel-3. Long time series of clear sky conditions and atmospherically calibrated (using a simplified Planck’s Law-based algorithm) images were processed in order to derive the lakes surface temperature trends from 1984 to 2019. The results show an overall increase in water surface temperatures which is more evident on the smallest and shallowest of the two test sites. In particular, it was observed that, since the year 2000, the surface temperature of both lakes has risen by about 0.106 °C/year on average, which doubles the rate that can be retrieved by considering the whole period 1984–2019 (0.053 °C/year on average).


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Douglas Rands

<p><b>Foraging behaviour can have a major influence on the survival and reproduction of individuals which can ultimately impact the viability of a population. Foraging is particularly challenging for procellariiformes (tube nosed seabirds) who feed on patchily distributed prey in the highly dynamic marine environment. During the breeding season procellariiformes must also increase their foraging effort to raise their chick whilst having a reduced foraging range. As a result, procellariiformes have adopted various foraging strategies, such as dual foraging and sexual foraging dimorphism, to cope with this energy demanding lifestyle. Westland petrels (Procellaria westlandica) are an endangered winter breeding procellariform endemic to the West Coast of New Zealand’s South Island. Unlike other procellariiformes, previous studies have found little evidence of Westland petrels using sexually dimorphic or dual foraging strategies. Furthermore, Westland petrels also display a high level of individual variation in foraging behaviour. To understand why there is so much variation and what factors are driving it, I first examined variation at the population, individual and within individual level to describe and categorise different foraging strategies. I then investigated how factors such as year, sex and foraging site influenced variation. Finally, I examined how oceanic variables influenced habitat selection and foraging characteristics to understand how the environment drives variation in foraging behaviour.</b></p> <p>Considerable variation was found at all levels. Most of the variation was explained by year with individuals taking shorter foraging trips in 2011 and longer trips in 2015. Females foraged further than males suggesting that there is some degree of sexual foraging segregation occurring in Westland petrels. I also found that the highest variation in foraging behaviour was exhibited by individuals within their core foraging site on the West Coast. Sea surface temperatures were highest at the West Coast foraging site and individuals within this site showed differences in habitat selection among years. Habitat selection at the West Coast site also differed between sexes suggesting that males are outcompeting females for prime foraging spots.</p> <p>Overall, my results indicate that foraging conditions on the West Coast are highly variable likely due to rising sea surface temperatures, marine heatwaves, and the effects of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. As a result, it is likely that prey availability on the West Coast is unpredictable causing high variation in foraging behaviour and sexual foraging segregation. With climate change, foraging conditions on the West Coast are predicted to get more unpredictable as sea surface temperatures continue to rise and extreme weather events become more frequent. These factors will make foraging increasingly difficult for Westland petrels and could see them rely more on fishery discards as a source of food, increasing their risk of incidental mortality. Conservation management should focus on protecting the petrels core foraging area around the Hokitika canyon to help limit the effects of climate change. Fishery management should also focus on limiting or prohibiting offal discards to prevent the incidental mortality of Westland petrels.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Douglas Rands

<p><b>Foraging behaviour can have a major influence on the survival and reproduction of individuals which can ultimately impact the viability of a population. Foraging is particularly challenging for procellariiformes (tube nosed seabirds) who feed on patchily distributed prey in the highly dynamic marine environment. During the breeding season procellariiformes must also increase their foraging effort to raise their chick whilst having a reduced foraging range. As a result, procellariiformes have adopted various foraging strategies, such as dual foraging and sexual foraging dimorphism, to cope with this energy demanding lifestyle. Westland petrels (Procellaria westlandica) are an endangered winter breeding procellariform endemic to the West Coast of New Zealand’s South Island. Unlike other procellariiformes, previous studies have found little evidence of Westland petrels using sexually dimorphic or dual foraging strategies. Furthermore, Westland petrels also display a high level of individual variation in foraging behaviour. To understand why there is so much variation and what factors are driving it, I first examined variation at the population, individual and within individual level to describe and categorise different foraging strategies. I then investigated how factors such as year, sex and foraging site influenced variation. Finally, I examined how oceanic variables influenced habitat selection and foraging characteristics to understand how the environment drives variation in foraging behaviour.</b></p> <p>Considerable variation was found at all levels. Most of the variation was explained by year with individuals taking shorter foraging trips in 2011 and longer trips in 2015. Females foraged further than males suggesting that there is some degree of sexual foraging segregation occurring in Westland petrels. I also found that the highest variation in foraging behaviour was exhibited by individuals within their core foraging site on the West Coast. Sea surface temperatures were highest at the West Coast foraging site and individuals within this site showed differences in habitat selection among years. Habitat selection at the West Coast site also differed between sexes suggesting that males are outcompeting females for prime foraging spots.</p> <p>Overall, my results indicate that foraging conditions on the West Coast are highly variable likely due to rising sea surface temperatures, marine heatwaves, and the effects of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. As a result, it is likely that prey availability on the West Coast is unpredictable causing high variation in foraging behaviour and sexual foraging segregation. With climate change, foraging conditions on the West Coast are predicted to get more unpredictable as sea surface temperatures continue to rise and extreme weather events become more frequent. These factors will make foraging increasingly difficult for Westland petrels and could see them rely more on fishery discards as a source of food, increasing their risk of incidental mortality. Conservation management should focus on protecting the petrels core foraging area around the Hokitika canyon to help limit the effects of climate change. Fishery management should also focus on limiting or prohibiting offal discards to prevent the incidental mortality of Westland petrels.</p>


Author(s):  
Natalia da Silva Moura ◽  
Khashayar R. Bajgiran ◽  
Adam T. Melvin ◽  
Kerry M. Dooley ◽  
James A. Dorman

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-47

Abstract This study utilises observations and a series of idealised experiments to explore whether Eastern Pacific (EP) and Central Pacific (CP) type El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events produce surface wind stress responses with distinct spatial structures. We find that the meridionally broader sea surface temperatures (SST) during CP events lead to zonal wind stresses that are also meridionally broader than those found during EP type events, leading to differences in the near-equatorial wind stress curl. These wind spatial structure differences create differences in the associated pre- and post-ENSO event WWV response. For instance, the meridionally narrow winds found during EP events have: i) weaker wind stresses along 5°N and 5°S, leading to weaker Ekman induced pre-event WWV changes; and ii) stronger near-equatorial wind stress curls that lead to a much larger post-ENSO event WWV changes than during CP events. The latter suggests that, in the framework of the recharge oscillator model, the EP events have stronger coupling between sea surface temperatures (SST) and thermocline (WWV), supporting more clearly the phase transition of ENSO events, and therefore the oscillating nature of ENSO than CP events. The results suggest that the spatial structure of the SST pattern and the related differences in the wind stress curl, are required along with equatorial wind stress to accurately model the WWV changes during EP and CP type ENSO events.


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