Heat Removal
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2022 ◽  
Vol 1049 ◽  
pp. 24-30
Anastasiya Gusarova ◽  
Tatiana Kalashnikova ◽  
Denis Gurianov ◽  
Andrey Chumaevskii ◽  
Ksenia Osipovich ◽  

The structure and properties of conically shaped products made of CuCr1 chrome bronze obtained by wire-feed electron beam additive technology have been investigated. The studies show that the organization of the structure in the samples fully corresponds to the peculiarities of the printing process and heat removal from the samples. The structure is represented by large grains elongated in the direction of heat removal. Chromium in the samples is mainly localized in the form of particles located between the dendrite arms. Near the substrate, intense mixing of the bronze with the substrate material (steel 321) is observed. The mechanical properties of the conical and cylindrical sample parts material are at a fairly close level. The samples are characterized by low values of yield strength, low values of tensile strength and high plasticity. Near the substrate, the mechanical properties of the specimens increase.

Zhigang Gao ◽  
Tianhu Wang ◽  
Yuxin Yang ◽  
Xiaolong Shang ◽  
Junhua Bai ◽  

Abstract The issue of regenerative cooling is one of the most important key technologies of flight vehicles, which is applied into both the engine and high-power electrical equipment. One pattern of regenerative cooling channels is the microchannel heat sinks, which are thought as a prospective means of improving heat removal capacities on electrical equipment of smaller sizes. In this paper, three numerical models with different geometric configurations, namely straight, zigzag, and sinusoid respectively, are built to probe into the thermal hydraulic performance while heat transfer mechanism of supercritical methane in microchannel heat sinks for the heat removal of high-power electromechanical actuator is also explored. In addition, some crucial influence factors on heat transfer such as inlet Reynolds number, operating pressure and heating power are investigated. The calculation results imply the positive effect of wavy configurations on heat transfer and confirm the important effect of buoyancy force of supercritical methane in channels. The heat sinks with wavy channel show obvious advantages on comprehensive thermal performance including overall thermal performance parameter ? and thermal resistance R compared with that of the straight one. The highest Nu and average heat transfer coefficient am appear in the heat sink with zigzag channels, but the pumping power of the heat sink with sinusoidal channels is lower due to the smaller flow loss.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 321
Liyan Sun ◽  
Junjie Lin ◽  
Dali Kong ◽  
Kun Luo ◽  
Jianren Fan

CO methanation is an exothermic process, and heat removal is an essential issue for the methanation reactor. Numerical studies were carried out to investigate the performance of a 3D fluidized bed methanation reactor with immersed cooling tubes. The simulations were carried out in the frame of the Euler–Euler model to analyze the performance of the reactor. The influences of operating temperatures were studied to understand the reaction characteristics. The temperature increases rapidly neared the inlet due to the reactions. The immersed tubes were effective at removing the reaction heat. The chemical equilibrium state was achieved with an operating temperature of 682 K for the case with immersed tubes. Different control mechanisms can be found during the process of increasing and decreasing the temperature. The reaction kinetic is the dominate factor for the cases with lower temperatures, while the chemical equilibrium will play a more important role at high temperature conditions. The configuration with staggered tubes is beneficial for heat removal.

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-34

The influence of meteorological parameters like wind and temperature determine the chillness upon the human body. The rate of heat removal from the human body by wind and low temperature was termed as Wind Chill by Siple and Passel (1945). Using the wind chill chart wind chill effects at Maitri, Antarctica during 1990 have been studied and compared with conventional value of monthly mean dry bulb and minimum temperatures. It has been observed that the wind chili temperature was about 15°-25°C lower than the dry bulb temperature when the wind speed exceeds 10 kt.      

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
Putu Brahmanda Sudarsana ◽  
Wayan Nata Septiadi ◽  
Mulya Juarsa

SMART (System-Integrated Advanced Modular Reactor) merupakan desain reaktor multifungsi Generasi III+ tipe SMR (Small Modular Reactor) yang dikembangkan oleh KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute) dengan kapabilitas produksi listrik 107 MWe dan energi termal 365 MWt. Sistem SMART meliputi berbagai fitur keselamatan untuk mengatasi LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) dan skenario kecelakaan lainnya. Salah satu dari fitur tersebut adalah Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS) atau sistem pembuang sisa panas pasif yang bekerja tanpa membutuhkan sumber daya elektrik. Sistem ini bekerja sesuai dengan prinsip sirkulasi alam sehingga bergantung pada aspek termal, tekanan, dan pengaruhnya terhadap aliran massa. Ketiga aspek tersebut dapat mempengaruhi kapabilitas pembuangan panas pada sistem. Data performa PRHRS reaktor SMART pada beberapa kondisi kecelakaan yang diperoleh melalui studi eksperimental maupun simulasi termohidrolika dianalisis pada kajian ini. Hasil analisis menunjukkan unjuk kerja pembuangan sisa panas yang baik oleh PRHRS SMART dengan waktu aktuasi yang tepat dan pendinginan yang stabil. Dengan kapabilitas multifungsi dan kemampuan pendinginan yang baik pada berbagai skenario kecelakaan, SMART memiliki potensi tinggi untuk kelak diterapkan di Indonesia.

Nikolay D. Kuzmichev ◽  
Ekaterina V. Danilova ◽  
Mikhael A. Vasyutin

A numerical calculation of the evolution of the temperature distribution in the longitudinal section of a niobium nitride membrane when it is heated by an electric current pulse is performed. Mathematical modeling was carried out on the basis of a two-dimensional initial-boundary value problem for an inhomogeneous heat equation. In the initial boundary value problem, it was taken into account that current and potential contacts to the membrane serve simultaneously as contacts for heat removal. The case was considered for the third from the left and the first from the right initial-boundary value problem. Analysis of the numerical solution showed that effective heat removal from the membrane can be provided by current-carrying and potential clamping contacts made, for example, of beryllium bronze. This makes it possible to study the current-voltage characteristics of superconducting membranes near the critical temperature of the transition to the superconducting state by currents close to the critical density without significant heating.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (6-1) ◽  
pp. 181-189
A. N. Steblyuk ◽  
V. E. Gunter ◽  
V. N. Khodorenko ◽  
E. V. Bykova ◽  
R. A. Avakimyan ◽  

Background. At an appointment with an ophthalmologist, patients with pathological conditions of the eyelids are often dissatisfi ed with the effectiveness of the traditional surgical treatment.The aim: assessment of the functional state of the eye adnexa after cryodestruction of the chalazion with an increased risk of complications using modern cryosurgical equipment.Material and methods. Clinical studies were carried out in 254 patients (277 eyes) with chalazion, including a complicated course of the disease, with cryodestruction of the chalazion using an autonomous cryoapplicator made of porous-permeable titanium nickelide.Results. Cryosystems of the new generation, in comparison with the well-known industrial cryoapparatus, diff er in new properties. They can signifi cantly improve the quality of cryotherapy in surgery due to a clearer localization of cryotherapy and a high rate of heat removal from the surface of altered tissues without damaging the surrounding tissues. Depending on the size of the pathological formation, the duration of the exposure, the frequency of repetitions of the applications during the session, the regression of the chalazion occurred within 1–1.5 months with the preservation of the integrity of the intermarginal space and the functional state of the eyelid.Conclusion. Analysis of the data obtained indicates a high clinical and cosmetic effi ciency of cryosurgery of the eyelid chalazion using an autonomous cryoapplicator made of porous-permeable titanium nickelide.

Md Rezouanul Kabir ◽  
Morozov A.V. ◽  
Md Saif Kabir

The mechanisms of boric acid mass transfer in a VVER-1200 reactor core are studied in this work in the event of a major circulatory pipeline rupture and loss of all AC power. The VVER-1200's passive core cooling technology is made up of two levels of hydro accumulators. They use boric acid solution with a concentration of 16 g H3BO3/kg H2O to control the reactivity. Because of the long duration of the accident process, the coolant with high boron content starts boiling and steam with low concentration of boric acid departs the core. So, conditions could arise in the reactor for possible accumulation and subsequent crystallization of boric acid, causing the core heat removal process to deteriorate. Calculations were carried out to estimate the likelihood of H3BO3 build-up and subsequent crystallization in the core of the VVER reactor. According to the calculations, during emergency the boric acid concentration in the reactor core is 0.153 kg/ kg and 0.158 kg/kg in both the events of solubility of steam and without solubility of steam respectively and it does not exceed the solubility limit which is about 0.415 kg/kg at water saturation temperature. No precipitation of boric acid occurs within this time during the whole emergency process. Therefore, findings of the study can be used to verify whether the process of decay heat removal is affected or not.

Wei Tong ◽  
Alireza Ganjali ◽  
Omidreza Ghaffari ◽  
Chady Alsayed ◽  
Luc Frechette ◽  

Abstract In a two-phase immersion cooling system, boiling on the spreader surface has been experimentally found to be non-uniform, and it is highly related to the surface temperature and the heat transfer coefficient. An experimentally obtained temperature-dependent boiling heat transfer coefficient has been applied to a numerical model to investigate the spreader's cooling performance. It is found that the surface temperature distribution becomes less uniform with higher input power. But it is more uniform when the thickness is increased. By defining the characteristic temperatures that represent different boiling regimes on the surface, the fraction of the surface area that has reached the critical heat flux has been numerically calculated, showing that increasing the thickness from 1 mm to 6 mm decreases the critical heat flux reached area by 23% at saturation liquid temperatures. Therefore, on the thicker spreader, more of the surface is utilized for nucleate boiling while localized hot regions that lead to surface dry-out are avoided. At a base temperature of 90 oC, the optimal thickness is found to be 4 mm, beyond which no significant improvement in heat removal can be obtained. Lower coolant temperatures can further increase the heat removal; it is reduced from an 18% improvement in the input power for the 1 mm case to only 3% in the 6 mm case for a coolant temperature drop of 24 oC. Therefore, a trade-off exists between the cost of maintaining the low liquid temperature and the increased heat removal capacity.

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