The integrity of the reactor coolant system is severely challenged as a result of an Emergency Power Mode – ATWS event. The purpose of this paper is to simulate the Anticipated Transient without Scram (ATWS) using the full scope simulator of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant with the Emergency Power Case as a precursor event. The results are discussed and will be used to examine the integrity of the reactor coolant system. In addition, the results were compared with the data presented in Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR – Angra 2) in order to guarantee the validation of the methodology and from there analyze other precursor events of ATWS which presented only plausibility studies in FSAR – Angra 2. In this way, the aim is to provide and develop the knowledge and skill necessaries for control room operating personnel to ensure safe and reliable plant operation and stimulate information in the nuclear area through the academic training of new engineers. In the presented paper the most severe scenario is analyzed in which the Reactor Coolant System reaches its highest level of coolant pressure. This scenario is initiated by the turbine trip jointly with the loss of electric power systems (Emergency Power Mode). In addition, the failure of the reactor shutdown system occurs, i.e., control rods fail to drop into the reactor core. The reactor power is safely reduced through the inherent reactivity feedback of the moderator and fuel, together with an automatic boron injection. Several operational variables were analyzed and their profiles over time are shown in order to provide data and benchmarking references. At the end of the event, it was noted that Reactor shutdown is assured, as is the maintenance of subcriticality. Residual heat removal is ensured.
The purpose of the present study is developing the operation mode factor (OMF) by remodeling the thermal efficiency model of a hybrid PVT collector during steady state. Joule heating occurs when the photovoltaic (PV) panel operates at a high current during maximum power point tracking (MPPT) on higher irradiation. Under these conditions, some electrical energy converts to thermal energy within the PV cells. Joule heating contributed to increasing the PVT thermal efficiency. The steps were to construct the OMF by remodeling the thermal efficiency involving the Joule heating effect and to validate the results using the model by comparing the simulation and experiment. The dimensionless OMF was responsible for changes in thermal efficiency for PVT-mode. The conductive heat transfer coefficient from the surface to the absorber was the most decisive component in the OMF. Heat removal factor and OMF might be interrelated at the mass flow rate by decreasing PV temperature to maintain Joule heating. The proposed model with OMF had explained PVT-mode and T-mode with the RMS value of less than 1%. This model complemented the results of the previous studies. The results may contribute from the initial design to the operational monitoring for thermal to electrical energy production.
The structure and properties of conically shaped products made of CuCr1 chrome bronze obtained by wire-feed electron beam additive technology have been investigated. The studies show that the organization of the structure in the samples fully corresponds to the peculiarities of the printing process and heat removal from the samples. The structure is represented by large grains elongated in the direction of heat removal. Chromium in the samples is mainly localized in the form of particles located between the dendrite arms. Near the substrate, intense mixing of the bronze with the substrate material (steel 321) is observed. The mechanical properties of the conical and cylindrical sample parts material are at a fairly close level. The samples are characterized by low values of yield strength, low values of tensile strength and high plasticity. Near the substrate, the mechanical properties of the specimens increase.
The issue of regenerative cooling is one of the most important key technologies of flight vehicles, which is applied into both the engine and high-power electrical equipment. One pattern of regenerative cooling channels is the microchannel heat sinks, which are thought as a prospective means of improving heat removal capacities on electrical equipment of smaller sizes. In this paper, three numerical models with different geometric configurations, namely straight, zigzag, and sinusoid respectively, are built to probe into the thermal hydraulic performance while heat transfer mechanism of supercritical methane in microchannel heat sinks for the heat removal of high-power electromechanical actuator is also explored. In addition, some crucial influence factors on heat transfer such as inlet Reynolds number, operating pressure and heating power are investigated. The calculation results imply the positive effect of wavy configurations on heat transfer and confirm the important effect of buoyancy force of supercritical methane in channels. The heat sinks with wavy channel show obvious advantages on comprehensive thermal performance including overall thermal performance parameter ? and thermal resistance R compared with that of the straight one. The highest Nu and average heat transfer coefficient am appear in the heat sink with zigzag channels, but the pumping power of the heat sink with sinusoidal channels is lower due to the smaller flow loss.
Integration of renewable energy sources to the grid-connected system has influenced scholarly research in recent times to evolve solutions for power electronic conversion. Particularly, solar photovoltaic (SPV), being a resource available throughout the year, demands needful research to meet the demand for industrial applications. To facilitate SPV, multilevel inverters (MLIs) and cascaded H-bridge inverters (CHBIs) are proposed in the literature to meet the power requirement. However, these circuits suffer from efficiency loss, economic aspects of DC sources usage, and switching losses. Hence, in this research, a new power converter topology is projected to improve the overall efficiency of SPV systems. Further, a three-level approach involving (i) SPV Panel-Temperature Reduction (SPV-PTR) Setup, (ii) Boost Multilevel Direct Current Link Converter (BMLDCLC), and (iii) use of effective snubber modules (SM) are effectively handled to promote the industry readiness of the proposed system. From a detailed system investigation, it is seen that the proposed arrangement has minimized the power loss to ensure better quality in output. Furthermore, the software-based results and hardware setup of the planned comprehensive converter have shown promising results in terms of (i) reduced voltage stress, (ii) reduced total harmonic distortion (THD) without filter component, and (iii) reduced power loss. It is observed that the experimental setup has reported a 12.9% of excess heat removal, 5% decrease in harmonics, and 33% switch reduction than the existing MLI schemes. In addition, the proposed setup is suggested to apply for industrial purposes indicate its efficacy to be a solution in real time.
Understanding how ice nucleates and grows into larger crystals is of crucial importance for many research fields. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the phase and structure of ice once a nucleus is formed inside a metastable water droplet. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) was performed on micron-sized droplets evaporatively cooled to temperatures where homogeneous nucleation occurs. We found that for our weak hits ice grows more cubic compared to the strong hits that are completely hexagonal. Due to efficient heat removal caused by evaporation, we propose that the cubicity of ice at the vicinity of the droplet’s surface is higher than for ice formed within the bulk of the droplet. Moreover, the Bragg peaks were classified based on their geometrical shapes and positions in reciprocal space, which showed that ice grows heterogeneously with a significant population of peaks indicative of truncation rods and crystal defects. Frequent occurrences of the (100) reflection with extended in-planar structure suggested that large planar ice crystals form at the droplet surface, then fracture into smaller domains to accommodate to the curvature of the droplets. Planar faulting due to misaligned domains would explain the increased cubicity close to the droplet surface.
CO methanation is an exothermic process, and heat removal is an essential issue for the methanation reactor. Numerical studies were carried out to investigate the performance of a 3D fluidized bed methanation reactor with immersed cooling tubes. The simulations were carried out in the frame of the Euler–Euler model to analyze the performance of the reactor. The influences of operating temperatures were studied to understand the reaction characteristics. The temperature increases rapidly neared the inlet due to the reactions. The immersed tubes were effective at removing the reaction heat. The chemical equilibrium state was achieved with an operating temperature of 682 K for the case with immersed tubes. Different control mechanisms can be found during the process of increasing and decreasing the temperature. The reaction kinetic is the dominate factor for the cases with lower temperatures, while the chemical equilibrium will play a more important role at high temperature conditions. The configuration with staggered tubes is beneficial for heat removal.
The influence of meteorological parameters like wind and temperature determine the chillness upon the human body. The rate of heat removal from the human body by wind and low temperature was termed as Wind Chill by Siple and Passel (1945). Using the wind chill chart wind chill effects at Maitri, Antarctica during 1990 have been studied and compared with conventional value of monthly mean dry bulb and minimum temperatures. It has been observed that the wind chili temperature was about 15°-25°C lower than the dry bulb temperature when the wind speed exceeds 10 kt.
SMART (System-Integrated Advanced Modular Reactor) merupakan desain reaktor multifungsi Generasi III+ tipe SMR (Small Modular Reactor) yang dikembangkan oleh KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute) dengan kapabilitas produksi listrik 107 MWe dan energi termal 365 MWt. Sistem SMART meliputi berbagai fitur keselamatan untuk mengatasi LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) dan skenario kecelakaan lainnya. Salah satu dari fitur tersebut adalah Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS) atau sistem pembuang sisa panas pasif yang bekerja tanpa membutuhkan sumber daya elektrik. Sistem ini bekerja sesuai dengan prinsip sirkulasi alam sehingga bergantung pada aspek termal, tekanan, dan pengaruhnya terhadap aliran massa. Ketiga aspek tersebut dapat mempengaruhi kapabilitas pembuangan panas pada sistem. Data performa PRHRS reaktor SMART pada beberapa kondisi kecelakaan yang diperoleh melalui studi eksperimental maupun simulasi termohidrolika dianalisis pada kajian ini. Hasil analisis menunjukkan unjuk kerja pembuangan sisa panas yang baik oleh PRHRS SMART dengan waktu aktuasi yang tepat dan pendinginan yang stabil. Dengan kapabilitas multifungsi dan kemampuan pendinginan yang baik pada berbagai skenario kecelakaan, SMART memiliki potensi tinggi untuk kelak diterapkan di Indonesia.