Surface Temperature
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2022 ◽  
Kyle J. Turner ◽  
Natalie J. Burls ◽  
Anna von Brandis ◽  
Joke Lübbecke ◽  
Martin Claus

AbstractInterannual sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the tropical Atlantic Ocean lead to anomalous atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns with important ecological and socioeconomic consequences for the semiarid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and northeast Brazil. This interannual SST variability is characterized by three modes: an Atlantic meridional mode featuring an anomalous cross-equatorial SST gradient that peaks in boreal spring; an Atlantic zonal mode (Atlantic Niño mode) with SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Atlantic cold tongue region that peaks in boreal summer; and a second zonal mode of variability with eastern equatorial SST anomalies peaking in boreal winter. Here we investigate the extent to which there is any seasonality in the relationship between equatorial warm water recharge and the development of eastern equatorial Atlantic SST anomalies. Seasonally stratified cross-correlation analysis between eastern equatorial Atlantic SST anomalies and equatorial heat content anomalies (evaluated using warm water volume and sea surface height) indicate that while equatorial heat content changes do occasionally play a role in the development of boreal summer Atlantic zonal mode events, they contribute more consistently to Atlantic Niño II, boreal winter events. Event and composite analysis of ocean adjustment with a shallow water model suggest that the warm water volume anomalies originate mainly from the off-equatorial northwestern Atlantic, in agreement with previous studies linking them to anomalous wind stress curl associated with the Atlantic meridional mode.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Eun-Young Lee ◽  
Kyung-Ae Park

Extreme value analysis (EVA) has been extensively used to understand and predict long-term return extreme values. This study provides the first approach to EVA using satellite-observed sea surface temperature (SST) data over the past decades. Representative EVA methods were compared to select an appropriate method to derive SST extremes of the East/Japan Sea (EJS). As a result, the peaks-over-threshold (POT) method showed better performance than the other methods. The Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) database was used to calculate the 100-year-return SST values in the EJS. The calculated SST extremes were 1.60–3.44°C higher than the average value of the upper 5th-percentile satellite-observed SSTs over the past decades (1982–2018). The monthly distribution of the SST extremes was similar to the known seasonal variation of SSTs in the EJS, but enhanced extreme SSTs exceeding 2°C appeared in early summer and late autumn. The calculated 100-year-return SSTs were compared with the simulation results of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) climate model. As a result, the extreme SSTs were slightly smaller than the maximum SSTs of the model data with a negative bias of –0.36°C. This study suggests that the POT method can improve our understanding of future oceanic warming based on statistical approaches using SSTs observed by satellites over the past decades.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-44
Y. E. A. RAJ ◽  

Several sea breeze parameters such as time of onset, withdrawal, duration, depth, variation with height, direction etc.  have been derived and studied for Chennai city and Chennai AP observatories in this study, which has been based on a large  data base for the period March-October,1969-83. The monthly and sub monthly values of several sea breeze parameters have been derived. By invoking the concept of superposed epoch analysis the important role played by sea breeze in modulating diurnal variation of surface temperature and relative humidity has been established. The sea breeze at Chennai has been shown to be shallow with a depth of under 1 km. Modal directions of sea breeze and its normal speed have been  derived.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (4) ◽  
pp. 417-424

The concept of Multi Layer Perceptron and Fuzzy logic is introduced in this paper to recognize the pattern of surface parameters pertaining to forecast the occurrence of pre-monsoon thunderstorms over Kolkata (22 ° 32¢ , 88 ° 20¢ ).   The results reveal that surface temperature fluctuates significantly from Fuzzy Multi Layer Perceptron (FMLP) model values on thunderstorm days whereas on non-thunderstorm days FMLP model fits well with the surface temperature.   The results further indicate that no definite pattern could be made available with surface dew point temperature and surface pressure that can help in forecasting the occurrence of these storms.

2022 ◽  
Pawan Kumar Singh ◽  
Alok Kumar Pandey ◽  
Anushka Chouhan

Abstract The increase in surface temperature and CO2 emissions are two of the most important issues in climate studies and global warming. The ‘Global Emissions 2021’ report identifies the six biggest contributors to CO2­ emissions; China, USA, India, Russia, Japan, and Germany. The current study projects the increase in surface temperature and the CO­2 emissions of these six countries by 2028. The EGM (1,1,α,θ) grey model is an even form of the model with a first order differential equation, that has one variable and a weightage background value that contains conformable fractional accumulation. The results show that while the CO2 emissions for Japan, Germany, USA and Russia show a downward projection, they are expected to increase in India and remain nearly constant in China by 2028. The surface temperature has been projected to increase at a significant rate in all these countries. By comparing with the EGM (1,1) grey model, the results show that the EGM (1,1, α, θ) model performs better in both in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting. The paper also puts forward some policy suggestions to mitigate, manage and reduce increases in surface temperature as well as CO2 emissions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (2) ◽  
pp. 245-248

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (2) ◽  
pp. 133-144
S. K. DASH ◽  
G. P. SINGH ◽  

The monthly mean atmospheric fields and surface parameters of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for the period 1948-1998 have been studied to examine the characteristics of monsoon circulation features, sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure, surface wind stress and latent heat flux over the Indian Ocean and nearby seas during deficient, normal and excess rain years. The entire period of study has been classified into deficient, normal and excess rain years for all India as well as for each of the five homogeneous zones separately based on the observed seasonal mean rainfall. On the basis of the mean characteristics of the surface fields, the oceanic region covering the Indian Ocean and adjacent seas has been divided into four regional sectors. Using various statistical means the relation between the surface fields over the four regional sectors and the monsoon rainfall over five homogeneous zones of Indian landmass has been examined. Attempt have been made to identify some surface parameters which can be used as predictors for seasonal mean monsoon rainfall over the entire India and also over some homogeneous zones.

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