east africa
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2022 ◽  
Vol 39 ◽  
pp. 100983
Paul Omonge ◽  
Moritz Feigl ◽  
Luke Olang ◽  
Karsten Schulz ◽  
Mathew Herrnegger

2022 ◽  
Sospeter Gachamba ◽  
Yan-ru Xing ◽  
Kelsey F. Andersen Onofre ◽  
Karen A. Garrett ◽  
Douglas W. Miano ◽  

Abstract Potato seed systems in Kenya are largely informal, characterized by high seed degeneration due to the buildup of seed- and soil-borne diseases, including bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Informal sources of seed include neighbors, local markets and farmer-saved seed, and present a risk for spread and establishment of disease. To understand the larger context of potato disease risk in Kenya, we used network analysis to evaluate (1) epidemic risk through potato trade networks centered around East Africa, and (2) locations in East Africa likely to be particularly important for epidemic management because of their high potato cropland connectivity. We evaluated the interactions of the key stakeholders in a potato seed system and used network analysis to identify locations that are likely to be important for the spread of infection of R. solanacearum in a potato seed distribution network in Meru, Kenya. Household details, seed sources, quantities sold, pest incidence and management practices, knowledge about seed degeneration and farmers' sources of information on potato production were obtained and analyzed. The survey revealed that self-saved, neighbors, seed companies, friends, exchange, and markets are the main seed sources. Only 43% of total seed transacted was certified. Users of uncertified seeds have high disease risk, and this is an especially important risk if their roles in the network give them the potential to be 'superspreaders' of disease.

Vivienne Steele ◽  
Kaitlin Patterson ◽  
Lea Berrang-Ford ◽  
Nia King ◽  
Manisha Kulkarni ◽  

Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5091 (1) ◽  
pp. 56-68

The taxonomic position of the West African Negeta semialba Hampson, 1918 is revised and the species is transferred from the genus Negeta Walker, 1862 of Westermanniinae to Leucobaeta László, Ronkay & Witt, 2010 of Nolinae: Leucobaeta semialba (Hampson, 1918) comb. n., based on morphological analysis. The hitherto unknown male adult and genitalia of both sexes are described and illustrated. Leucobaeta semialba is compared to the superficially similar Afrotropical Negeta mesoleuca (Holland, 1894) and N. ruficeps (Hampson, 1902); two sibling species from East Africa and Madagascar are described as new to science: L. smithi and L. malagassa spp. n. Pairwise genetic distances of COI-5P sequences between the taxa are provided.  

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