antenatal care
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 266-272
Lila Amila ◽  
Ezrin Syariman bin Roslan ◽  
Nabila ◽  
Widati Fatmaningrum

Birth weight serves as an indicator of a newborn’s health status. It is associated with mortality rate in the first year, developmental problems in childhood and risk of various diseases in adulthood. Even in modern era, it continues to be a health concern globally, especially in developing countries. In Indonesia, the prevalence of low birth weight has increased from 2013 to 2018, swaying further from the national target. Low birth weight is often caused by insufficient nutrients supplied by the mother to the fetus. In Indonesia, chronic energy deficiency status is diagnosed in the first antenatal care visit by measuring maternal middle-upper arm circumference with a cut-off point of 23.5cm. Meanwhile, iron level is measured via assessing hemoglobin level will be measured in the first antenatal care visit and in trimester III. This study aims to describe the factors that may influence neonatal birth weight. It is a quantitative study with a cross sectional approach conducted at Sidotopo Wetan Public Health Centre. 97 samples are collected from medical records and analysed using bivariate correlative test. Result shows that maternal age (0.20), chronic energy deficiency status (0.026) and antenatal care visit minimal of 4 times (0.49) increase the risk of low-birth-weight incidence. On the other hand, educational level, maternal parity and anemia status does not acts as risks. In conclusion, maternal age, energy status and visits to antenatal care acts as risk factors in causing low birth weight.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 89-91
Kamar Jahan ◽  
Binod Kumar Mahaseth

Introduction: Foetal death at any stage of pregnancy is not just a tragic event but also a more traumatic for the mental well-being of a mother. It is one of the most wrenching events in the field of obstetrics. Aims: The study was done to determine the probable risk factors of intrauterine foetal death and role of antenatal care in its prevention. Methods: The study was conducted  in Obstetrics and Gynecology department at Nepalgunj Medical college from July 2018 to July 2020 .Inclusion criteria were  intrauterine fetal death  of >28 weeks of gestation and baby weighing  1000 grams or more . An exclusion criterion was molar pregnancy. Results: There were 115(3.52%) intrauterine fetal death during the study period, making it 35 per 1000 cases. In 17(14.78%) the cause of intrauterine fetal death was not known. The other common associated risk factors were prematurity in 14(12.17%) and hypertension in 13(11.30%). Similarly anemia and antepartum hemorrhage were seen in 13(11.30%) each. 11(9.56%) patients had oligohydramnios. Mal presentation was found in 8(6.95%) patients while polyhydromnios in 6(5.21%).The commonest age range in whom intrauterine fetal death was seen was 20-30 (73.90%). 28 (24.34%) patients were at preterm pregnancy ranging between 28-30 weeks whereas 17(14.78) intrauterine fetal death occured at  32-34 weeks. 77 foetuses were preterm and their birth weight was between 1 - 1.5 kg  with the mean wt of  1175.73 gms. Conclusion: Intrauterine fetal death is still common inspite of the improving awareness in importance of regular antenatal care. In majority, the cause of intrauterine fetal death is still unknown. However, where the cause was known prematurity was the commonest.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Assaye Belay ◽  
Tessema Astatkie ◽  
Solomon Abebaw ◽  
Bekele Gebreamanule ◽  
Wegayehu Enbeyle

Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a health care intervention intended to ensure the safety of pregnancy. According to the World Health Organization, at least four ANC visits are recommended for a healthy pregnancy. However, whether this recommended number of visits was followed or not in the rural areas of Southwestern Ethiopia is not known. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the prevalence of, and the associated factors of ANC utilization by pregnant women in the rural areas of Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study design was used in three rural zones. The data were collected from n = 978 women through a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interview. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a multiple binary logistic regression model. Results The results showed that 56% of women made the recommended minimum number of ANC visits and the remaining 44% of them underutilized the ANC service. The multiple binary logistic regression model identified zone, marital status of the woman, educational level of the husband, occupation of the husband, knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy, birth interval, source of information, timely visits, and transportation problem to be statistically significant factors affecting the prevalence of ANC visit utilization of women. Bench Maji zone had smaller odds ratio of ANC visit prevalence as compared to Kaffa zone. Women who lived in the rural area of Sheko zone are 2.67 times less likely to utilize ANC visit than those who lived in the rural area of Kaffa zone keeping other variables constant. Conclusion The study results highlight the need to increase the number of ANC visits, and the importance of using an appropriate model to determine the important socio-demographic factors that ANC service providers shall focus on to improve the health of the unborn baby and the mother during pregnancy.

2022 ◽  
pp. 097321792110688
Getahun Tiruye ◽  
Kasiye Shiferaw ◽  
Addisu Shunu ◽  
Yitagesu Sintayeu ◽  
Abdulbasit Musa Seid

Background Sub-Saharan African countries, especially the Eastern region, present the dismal picture of neonatal mortality (NM) in the globe. The majority of these deaths could be avoided if effective health measures are provided throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Although antenatal care (ANC) is assumed as one of the viable interventions that contribute to neonatal survival, the effect of ANC on NM was not systematically analyzed in Eastern Africa. Thus, the study aimed to determine the pooled effect of ANC on NM in Eastern Africa. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and HINARI databases were searched using appropriate keywords from January 1, 1990 to February 12, 2021. Independent authors selected eligible articles and extracted data. The risk of a bias assessment tool for nonrandomized studies was used to assess the quality of the study. Comprehensive meta-analysis version 2 was used for meta-analysis. The random-effect model was employed, and the outcome is expressed as a risk ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results In total, 1149 studies were identified through database search, and only 27 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Having at least 1 ANC visit during pregnancy reduced the risk of neonatal death by 42% compared to their counterparts (RR = 0.58, 95% CI [0.47, 0.71]). The pooled prevalence of NM was 8.5% (95% CI [7.3, 9.6]), with NM rate of 46.3/1000 live births. Conclusion The study indicated that NM might be decreased even with a single ANC visit when compared to no visits. Scaling up ANC services through ANC promotion and tackling service-related barriers could potentially reduce NM in Eastern Africa.

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (2) ◽  
pp. 48-51
Andrew R. Pelletier ◽  
Josip Derado ◽  
Limpho Maoela ◽  
Thabiso Lekhotsa ◽  
Masechache Sechache ◽  

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Saad M. Alhaqbani ◽  
Amen A. Bawazir

The current study assessed pregnant women’s satisfaction with antenatal care (ANC) services at primary health care centers (PHCs) in Riyadh Cluster One. The study was conducted at 11 PHCs where the ANC initiative has been implemented. A total of 646 pregnant women were enrolled. A questionnaire was completed by participants to measure the level of satisfaction with the provided services, care, and consultation. Subsequently, the data were analyzed to determine the significant differences and conduct regression analysis. The overall satisfaction with initial triage assessment, provided services, consultation, and examination was 93.7%, 87.8%, 71.8%, and 53.9%, respectively. Regarding ANC services, education was the only statistically significant variable that influenced patient satisfaction (p < 0.05). In contrast, satisfaction with the provided care was significantly related to all the variables studied. For consultation, education (p < 0.001) and monthly income (p < 0.05) were the statistically significant role players. In the regression analysis, secondary education was statistically significantly related to the provided services, consultation, and examination. Despite the satisfactory level of ANC at the selected PHCs, higher patient satisfaction could be achieved in the future by improving the consultation and examination practices. Overall satisfaction with the health care workers at PHCs is high. Incorporating implied ameliorations would enhance the quality of services and patient satisfaction.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262688
Sunday A. Adedini ◽  
Sunday Matthew Abatan ◽  
Adesoji Dunsin Ogunsakin ◽  
Christiana Alake Alex-Ojei ◽  
Blessing Iretioluwa Babalola ◽  

Context Considering the persistent poor maternal and child health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this study undertook a comparative analysis of the timing and adequacy of antenatal care uptake between women (aged 20–24 years) who married before age 18 and those who married at age 18 or above. Method Data came from Demographic and Health Surveys of 20 SSA countries. We performed binary logistic regression analysis on pooled data of women aged 20–24 (n = 33,630). Results Overall, the percentage of child brides in selected countries was 57.1%, with the lowest prevalence found in Rwanda (19.1%) and the highest rate in Chad (80.9%). Central and West African countries had the highest prevalence of child marriage compared to other sub-regions. Bivariate results indicate that a lower proportion of child brides (50.0%) had 4+ ANC visits compared to the adult brides (60.9%) and a lower percentage of them (34.0%) initiated ANC visits early compared to the adult brides (37.5%). After controlling for country of residence and selected socio-economic and demographic characteristics, multivariable results established significantly lower odds of having an adequate/prescribed number of ANC visits among women who married before age 15 (OR: 0.63, CI: 0.57–0.67, p<0.001), and women who married at ages 15–17 (OR: 0.81, CI: 0.75–0.84, p<0.001) compared to those who married at age 18+. Similar results were established between age at first marriage and timing of first ANC visit. Other interesting results emerged that young women who married earlier than age 18 and those who married at age 18+ differ significantly by several socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Conclusion Efforts to improve maternal and child health outcomes in SSA must give attention to address the underutilization and late start of antenatal care uptake among child brides.

Vivienne Steele ◽  
Kaitlin Patterson ◽  
Lea Berrang-Ford ◽  
Nia King ◽  
Manisha Kulkarni ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Firanbon Teshome ◽  
Zewdie Birhanu ◽  
Yohannes Kebede

Abstract Background Preconception care helps to close the gaps in a continuum of care. It is of paramount importance to reduce maternal and child adverse pregnancy outcomes, increase the utilization of services such as antenatal care, skilled delivery care, and post-natal care, and improve the lives of future generations. Therefore, a validated instrument is required. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the preconception care improvement scale (PCIS) in a resource-limited setting. Methods A mixed-method study was carried out from 02, March to 10, April 2019 in Manna district, Oromia region, Ethiopia to test the reliability and validity of the scale. Items were generated from literatures review, in-depth interviews with different individuals, and focused group discussions with women of reproductive age groups. A pretested structured questionnaire was used and a survey was conducted among 623 pregnant women in the district. The collected data were entered into EPI-data version 3.1 software and exported to SPSS version 23 software and data were analyzed for internal consistency and validity using reliability analysis and factor analysis. Results The PCIS has 17 items loaded into six factors: Substance-related behaviors, screening for common non-communicable and infectious diseases, micronutrient supplementation and vaccination, seeking advice, decision and readiness for conception, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases. Factor analysis accounted for 67.51% of the observed variance. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale was 0.776. Diversified participants of the qualitative study and experts’ discussions assured the face and content validity of the scale. Factor loading indicated the convergent validity of the scale. Three of the PCIS subscale scores had a positive and significant association with the practice of preconception care and antenatal care visits, which confirmed the predictive validity of the scale. Conclusion The PCIS exhibited good reliability, face validity, content validity, convergent validity, and predictive validity. Thus, the scale is valid and helps to improve preconception care, especially in resource-limited settings.

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