morphological analysis
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Tayyaba Fatima ◽  
Raees Ul Islam ◽  
Muhammad Waqas Anwar ◽  
M. Hasan Jamal ◽  
M. Tayyab Chaudhry ◽  

Stemming is a common word conflation method that perceives stems embedded in the words and decreases them to their stem (root) by conflating all the morphologically related terms into a single term, without doing a complete morphological analysis. This article presents STEMUR, an enhanced stemming algorithm for automatic word conflation for Urdu language. In addition to handling words with prefixes and suffixes, STEMUR also handles words with infixes. Rather than using a totally unsupervised approach, we utilized the linguistic knowledge to develop a collection of patterns for Urdu infixes to enhance the accuracy of the stems and affixes acquired during the training process. Additionally, STEMUR also handles English loan words and can handle words with more than one affix. STEMUR is compared with four existing Urdu stemmers including Assas-Band and the template-based stemmer that are also implemented in this study. Results are processed on two corpora containing 89,437 and 30,907 words separately. Results show clear improvements regarding strength and accuracy of STEMUR. The use of maximum possible infix rules boosted our stemmer's accuracy up to 93.1% and helped us achieve a precision of 98.9%.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Nadiia Koval ◽  
Volodymyr Kulyk ◽  
Mykola Riabchuk ◽  
Kateryna Zarembo ◽  
Marianna Fakhurdinova

Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5091 (1) ◽  
pp. 56-68

The taxonomic position of the West African Negeta semialba Hampson, 1918 is revised and the species is transferred from the genus Negeta Walker, 1862 of Westermanniinae to Leucobaeta László, Ronkay & Witt, 2010 of Nolinae: Leucobaeta semialba (Hampson, 1918) comb. n., based on morphological analysis. The hitherto unknown male adult and genitalia of both sexes are described and illustrated. Leucobaeta semialba is compared to the superficially similar Afrotropical Negeta mesoleuca (Holland, 1894) and N. ruficeps (Hampson, 1902); two sibling species from East Africa and Madagascar are described as new to science: L. smithi and L. malagassa spp. n. Pairwise genetic distances of COI-5P sequences between the taxa are provided.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 713
Esther Nneka Anosike-Francis ◽  
Paschal Ateb Ubi ◽  
Ifeyinwa Ijeoma Obianyo ◽  
Godwin Mong Kalu-Uka ◽  
Abdulhakeem Bello ◽  

This study investigates the feasibility of creating a clay polymer-based composite using cowpea husk (CPH) as filler for production of roof tiles. Polymeric composites were fabricated by mixing unsaturated polyester (UPT) resin with cowpea husk at different filler weights and curing. A hybrid composite was produced with the addition of 3 wt.% clay and all samples produced were subjected to flexural, hardness and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests. The effect of clay addition on the mechanical and thermo-mechanical behaviour of formulated composites was investigated. The morphological analysis of the mono and hybrid system shows a rough and coarse inhomogeneous surface with voids created due to the addition of CPH filler for the mono reinforced and clay uniformly filling the voids that were created by the CPH in the hybrid composite. It is observed that hardness, tensile modulus and flexural modulus of hybrid composites increase with an increase in the CPH contents, while the strength and flexural strength all decrease with filler content. The optimal composition was obtained using Grey relational analysis (GRA) at 18% CPH for both mono and hybrid composite. The results imply that the composite combination can be used in making rooftiles and/or also in applications where low strength is required.

Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5087 (4) ◽  
pp. 571-582

Malagasy Epilachnini are one of the least studied groups of the herbivorous ladybird beetles. Most of the species were described in the 19th and 20th centuries and their position within the modern classification has never been examined. Here we provide results of detailed study of two species Epilachna hovana Sicard, 1907 and Peralda quadriguttata, Sicard, 1909 which are proposed to be transferred to the genus Merma Weise (comb. nov.). Detailed morphological analysis, photographs of male and female genitalia and a key to species are also provided.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 115-122
Rita Sarah Borna ◽  
S Mitra ◽  
AJA Gifary ◽  
RH Sarker

Biramsundari is a rice germplasm from Bangladesh showing one to four grain in a single seed. Comparative study of morphological traits revealed that BS is a taller rice variety compared to modern rice varieties with longer and wider flag leaves, longer panicle length and higher thousand seed weight (TSW) than transplanted aman rice variety BRRI dhan 49. Flower morphological analysis unveil that multiple grains of Biramsundari are originating from multiple number of carpels in each floret. About 40.1% flower contains three carpels. Fluorescent microscopic study also confirms the zygotic origin of multiple grain formation in Biramsundari. Molecular characterisation of Biramsundari was performed by using TeaCpSSR27 and TeaCpSSR28 chloroplast microsatellite markers. The results of this investigation reveal that atpF and rsp14-psaB intergenic spacer regions of Biramsundari have variation compared to sequences of with O. sativa ssp. indica, O. sativa ssp. japonica and O. rufipogon. Plant Tissue Cult. & Biotech. 31(2): 115-122, 2021 (December)

Behnam Sisakhtpour ◽  
Arezoo Mirzaei ◽  
Vajihe Karbasizadeh ◽  
Nafiseh Hosseini ◽  
Mehdi Shabani ◽  

Abstract Background Widespread misuse of antibiotics caused bacterial resistance increasingly become a serious threat. Bacteriophage therapy promises alternative treatment strategies for combatting drug-resistant bacterial infections. In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel, potent lytic bacteriophage against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and described the lytic capability and endolysin activity of the phage to evaluate the potential in phage therapy. Methods A novel phage, pIsf-AB02, was isolated from hospital sewage. The morphological analysis, its host range, growth characteristics, stability under various conditions, genomic restriction pattern were systematically investigated. The protein pattern of the phage was analyzed, and the endolysin activity of the phage was determined under the non-denaturing condition on SDS-PAGE. The optimal lytic titer of phage was assessed by co-culture of the phage with clinical MDR A. baumannii isolates. Finally, HeLa cells were used to examine the safety of the phage. Results The morphological analysis revealed that the pIsf-AB02 phage displays morphology resembling the Myoviridae family. It can quickly destroy 56.3% (27/48) of clinical MDR A. baumannii isolates. This virulent phage could decrease the bacterial host cells (from 108 CFU/ml to 103 CFU/ml) in 30 min. The optimum stability of the phage was observed at 37 °C. pH 7 is the most suitable condition to maintain phage stability. The 15 kDa protein encoded by pIsf-AB02 was detected to have endolysin activity. pIsf-AB02 did not show cytotoxicity to HeLa cells, and it can save HeLa cells from A. baumannii infection. Conclusion In this study, we isolated a novel lytic MDR A. baumannii bacteriophage, pIsf-AB02. This phage showed suitable stability at different temperatures and pHs, and demonstrated potent in vitro endolysin activity. pIsf-AB02 may be a good candidate as a therapeutic agent to control nosocomial infections caused by MDR A. baumannii.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Guiguigbaza-Kossigan Dayo ◽  
Isidore Houaga ◽  
Martin Bienvenu Somda ◽  
Awa Linguelegue ◽  
Mamadou Ira ◽  

Abstract Background The present study aimed at characterizing the Djallonké Sheep (DS), the only local sheep breed raised in Guinea-Bissau. A total of 200 animals were sampled from four regions (Bafatá, Gabú, Oio and Cacheu) and described using 7 visual criteria and 8 measurements. These parameters have been studied by principal components analysis. The genetic diversity and population structure of 92 unrelated animals were studied using 12 microsatellite markers. Results The values of quantitative characters in the Bafatá region were significantly higher than those obtained in the other three regions. A phenotypic diversity of the DS population was observed and three genetic types distinguished: animals with “large traits” in the region of Bafatá, animals with “intermediate traits” in the regions of Gabú and Oio and animals with “small traits” in the Cacheu region. The hair coat colors are dominated by the white color, the shape of the facial head profile is mainly convex and the ears “erected horizontally”. Most of the morphobiometric characteristics were significantly influenced by the “region” and “sex of animals”. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of 0.65 ± 0.11 supports the use of markers in genetic characterization. Gabú subpopulation had the highest genetic diversity measures (He = 0.716 ± 0.089) while Cacheu DS subpopulation presented the smallest (He = 0.651 ± 0.157). Only Gabú and Bafatá subpopulations presented significant heterozygote deficiency across all loci indicating possible significant inbreeding. Mean values for FIT,FST, FIS and GST statistics across all loci were 0.09, 0.029, 0.063 and 0.043 respectively. The overall genetic differentiation observed between the four DS subpopulations studied was low. Bafatá and Gabú are the most closely related subpopulations (DS = 0.04, genetic identity = 0.96) while Bafatá and Cacheu were the most genetically distant subpopulations (DS = 0.14, genetic identity = 0.87). Using Bayesian approach, the number of K groups that best fit the data is detected between 2 and 3, which is consistent with the morphological analysis and the factorial analysis of correspondence. Conclusions The molecular results on DS population of Guinea-Bissau confirmed the ones obtained with morphological analysis. The three genetic types observed phenotypically might be due to a combination of the agro-ecological differences and the management of breeding rather than genetic factors.

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