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Author(s):  
حنان الصادق بيزان

Social networking is one of the most recently used technologies because of its advantages, spread and interaction. It is one of the most prominent applications of the second generation Web 2.0, which has effectively imposed itself on the users of the internet. Facebook network comes second after search engine at the global level, "Google". It is noted that they are highly efficient in providing information services and representation of information institutions and facilities in the virtual world. it is agreed that the progress of the societies is measured according to their ability to free and fast access to information and to use it to generate knowledge that reaches wisdom, progress and excellence. At this point, the importance of studies of information is shown in general and Webometrics in particular, which means that the set of statistical methods and measurements used to study the quantitative and qualitative aspects of information resources, structures, uses and techniques on the web, is found to be bibliometric studies designed to study and analyze reference citations, can be applied to the information resources available on the web such as the links of web pages and the use of those sites. Therefore, the study aims to monitor students' attitudes towards the use of social networking sites in general, and the Facebook page of the department of information studies of the Libyan Academy particularly. To identify the view of the students of the information management division and the management of the archive to their identify satisfaction with the information services provided by the page, and the extent of knowledge of the links of electronic sources of information, and the extent to meet their needs and scientific desires, and to what extent related to academic and research interests.


Author(s):  
اعياد قاسم محمد ◽  
جمال عبد ناموس

This research aims to identify the journalistic treatment of the economic crisis in the Iraqi newspaper Al-Zaman, in order to give a clear picture of the types and methods of processing, the press arts, sources of information and the elements of the typographic highlights that dealt with the economic crisis, and the developments and effects of this crisis in many political, social, environmental and other fields, as The Iraqi press treatment of the economic crisis resulting from the Corona crisis? The objectives of the research are a reflection of the questions identified by the research. The research reached a set of conclusions as follows: 1. Surface treatment ranked first in the newspaper's press content, which means that the newspaper moved away from deepening topics related to the economic crisis because it wanted to win the public in the shortest and simplest way by presenting simple information about the crisis and the superficial opinions it deals with. 2. Zaman relied a lot on the art of journalistic investigation among other journalistic arts in dealing with the economic crisis in an effort to reveal the shortcomings and mismanagement that caused the crisis in order to compensate for the competition of weak newspapers in the field of journalistic precedence with the new media and its outputs. 3. The reliance of time on the source (journalist writer) in the category of the source of information was a clear imbalance in its editorial policy, as this revealed a weakness in the use of delegates and correspondents in dealing with the topics of the economic crisis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 535-560
Author(s):  
Jerónimo Escribano ◽  
Enza Di Tomaso ◽  
Oriol Jorba ◽  
Martina Klose ◽  
Maria Gonçalves Ageitos ◽  
...  

Abstract. Atmospheric mineral dust has a rich tri-dimensional spatial and temporal structure that is poorly constrained in forecasts and analyses when only column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) is assimilated. At present, this is the case of most operational global aerosol assimilation products. Aerosol vertical distributions obtained from spaceborne lidars can be assimilated in aerosol models, but questions about the extent of their benefit upon analyses and forecasts along with their consistency with AOD assimilation remain unresolved. Our study thoroughly explores the added value of assimilating spaceborne vertical dust profiles, with and without the joint assimilation of dust optical depth (DOD). We also discuss the consistency in the assimilation of both sources of information and analyse the role of the smaller footprint of the spaceborne lidar profiles in the results. To that end, we have performed data assimilation experiments using dedicated dust observations for a period of 2 months over northern Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. We assimilate DOD derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) Deep Blue and for the first time Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP)-based LIdar climatology of Vertical Aerosol Structure for space-based lidar simulation studies (LIVAS) pure-dust extinction coefficient profiles on an aerosol model. The evaluation is performed against independent ground-based DOD derived from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) Sun photometers and ground-based lidar dust extinction profiles from the Cyprus Clouds Aerosol and Rain Experiment (CyCARE) and PREparatory: does dust TriboElectrification affect our ClimaTe (Pre-TECT) field campaigns. Jointly assimilating LIVAS and Deep Blue data reduces the root mean square error (RMSE) in the DOD by 39 % and in the dust extinction coefficient by 65 % compared to a control simulation that excludes assimilation. We show that the assimilation of dust extinction coefficient profiles provides a strong added value to the analyses and forecasts. When only Deep Blue data are assimilated, the RMSE in the DOD is reduced further, by 42 %. However, when only LIVAS data are assimilated, the RMSE in the dust extinction coefficient decreases by 72 %, the largest improvement across experiments. We also show that the assimilation of dust extinction profiles yields better skill scores than the assimilation of DOD under an equivalent sensor footprint. Our results demonstrate the strong potential of future lidar space missions to improve desert dust forecasts, particularly if they foresee a depolarization lidar channel to allow discrimination of desert dust from other aerosol types.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sospeter Gachamba ◽  
Yan-ru Xing ◽  
Kelsey F. Andersen Onofre ◽  
Karen A. Garrett ◽  
Douglas W. Miano ◽  
...  

Abstract Potato seed systems in Kenya are largely informal, characterized by high seed degeneration due to the buildup of seed- and soil-borne diseases, including bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Informal sources of seed include neighbors, local markets and farmer-saved seed, and present a risk for spread and establishment of disease. To understand the larger context of potato disease risk in Kenya, we used network analysis to evaluate (1) epidemic risk through potato trade networks centered around East Africa, and (2) locations in East Africa likely to be particularly important for epidemic management because of their high potato cropland connectivity. We evaluated the interactions of the key stakeholders in a potato seed system and used network analysis to identify locations that are likely to be important for the spread of infection of R. solanacearum in a potato seed distribution network in Meru, Kenya. Household details, seed sources, quantities sold, pest incidence and management practices, knowledge about seed degeneration and farmers' sources of information on potato production were obtained and analyzed. The survey revealed that self-saved, neighbors, seed companies, friends, exchange, and markets are the main seed sources. Only 43% of total seed transacted was certified. Users of uncertified seeds have high disease risk, and this is an especially important risk if their roles in the network give them the potential to be 'superspreaders' of disease.


Author(s):  
Nalia Gurgel-Juarez ◽  
Karen Mallet ◽  
Mary Egan ◽  
Dylan Blacquiere ◽  
Anik Laneville ◽  
...  

Purpose: Stroke impacts independent activities, particularly personal care such as oral hygiene. Existing guidelines lack details about how to provide effective oral care. This study explores the frequency of oral care based on staff adherence to oral care policies. Method: As part of a quality improvement initiative, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 30 consecutive stroke admissions to an acute care hospital. Patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage or ischemic stroke were eligible. Sources of information included a decision support database and an electronic chart review. Data collection included length of hospitalization, stroke type, presence of infections, oral mechanism exam, dysphagia evaluations, and daily personal care provision by nursing staff (e.g., oral care and bathing). Results: Twenty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. They had a mean age of 74 years, and 52% were men. Most had supratentorial stroke (86%) with comparable frequencies of right (48%) and left (52%) hemisphere lesions. In over half of the cases, provision of oral care was not documented at any point during the patients' hospitalization ( Mdn = 128 hr). Pericare and bathing were about twice and 4 times more frequent than oral care, respectively. Conclusions: Oral care after stroke is challenging. Existing oral care recommendations from stroke guidelines lack sufficient detail and warrant reconsideration for optimal and routine implementation particularly in acute settings. Education around oral care and associated protocols are necessary to advance oral care practices and improve stroke recovery.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Amy S. Bruckman

As we interact online we are creating new kinds of knowledge and community. How are these communities formed? How do we know whether to trust them as sources of information? In other words, Should we believe Wikipedia? This book explores what community is, what knowledge is, how the internet facilitates new kinds of community, and how knowledge is shaped through online collaboration and conversation. Along the way the author tackles issues such as how we represent ourselves online and how this shapes how we interact, why there is so much bad behavior online and what we can do about it. And the most important question of all: What can we as internet users and designers do to help the internet to bring out the best in us all?


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261559
Author(s):  
Ali Ghaddar ◽  
Sanaa Khandaqji ◽  
Zeinab Awad ◽  
Rawad Kansoun

Background The massive, free and unrestricted exchange of information on the social media during the Covid-19 pandemic has set fertile grounds for fear, uncertainty and the rise of fake news related to the virus. This “viral” spread of fake news created an “infodemic” that threatened the compliance with public health guidelines and recommendations. Objective This study aims to describe the trust in social media platforms and the exposure to fake news about COVID-19 in Lebanon and to explore their association with vaccination intent. Methods In this cross-sectional study conducted in Lebanon during July–August, 2020, a random sample of 1052 participants selected from a mobile-phone database responded to an anonymous structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent (response rate = 40%). The questionnaire was conducted by telephone and measured socio-demographics, sources and trust in sources of information and exposure to fake news, social media activity, perceived threat and vaccination intent. Results Results indicated that the majority of participants (82%) believed that COVID-19 is a threat and 52% had intention to vaccinate. Exposure to fake/ unverified news was high (19.7% were often and 63.8% were sometimes exposed, mainly to fake news shared through Watsapp and Facebook). Trust in certain information sources (WHO, MoPH and TV) increased while trust in others (Watsapp, Facebook) reduced vaccination intent against Covid-19. Believing in the man-made theory and the business control theory significantly reduced the likelihood of vaccination intent (Beta = 0.43; p = 0.01 and Beta = -0.29; p = 0.05) respectively. Conclusion In the context of the infodemic, understanding the role of exposure to fake news and of conspiracy believes in shaping healthy behavior is important for increasing vaccination intent and planning adequate response to tackle the Covid-19 pandemic.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (15) ◽  
pp. 216-221
Author(s):  
Gul'fira Bychkova

The features are investigated, systematized, and reserves for improving the process of calculating and analyzing free cash flow are identified. The sources of information have been clarified, and a new indicator for assessing the effectiveness of cash flow management – the economic return on assets on free cash flow - has been recommended


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 87-120
Author(s):  
Antonio Alcon Vila

The main objective of this article is to analyze Bolivian small and medium enterprises (SMEs), their evolution, and their contribution to the country's economy. The globalization of markets is currently a reality to which companies are exposed for their survival, growth and development. In developing countries such as the plurinational State of Bolivia, this reality becomes more relevant due to the socioeconomic characteristics of the country, where the main economic activity is dependent on the export of non-renewable natural resources (natural gas and minerals), and to a lesser extent the export of primary products. In this context, the article shows that SMEs struggle to consolidate their position in local markets, and have a low participation in global markets. The article reviews relevant secondary and primary literature, and concludes that SMEs require public and private support to contribute to the promotion of entrepreneurial culture, enter into global production chains, develop technological and innovation capabilities, and achieve growth in a sustainable manner and with high levels of competitiveness. The research method used is the review of relevant primary and secondary bibliographic sources of information about the origins, evolution and current situation of SMEs in Bolivia, and about possible alternatives for growth and development.


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