Personality Traits
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2022 ◽  
Vol 185 ◽  
pp. 111253
Author(s):  
Chloe Lau ◽  
Francesca Chiesi ◽  
Donald H. Saklofske

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 50-56
Author(s):  
S. Chowdhury ◽  
T. Mukherjee

Introduction: Obesity has significant physical and psychological implications along with severe impacts on social and interpersonal relationships of individuals. The present work is a comparative study between normal weight, overweight and obese individuals with respect to their personality traits and attachment in romantic relationships, it also aims to explore the relationship of body mass index with the variables chosen. Material And Method: The total sample size was 90. The study was conducted upon three groups-the three groups consisted of 30 normal weight participants, 30 overweight participants and 30 obese participants each. Participants were grouped on the basis of their Body Mass Index (BMI)- which was calculated from self-reported measures of height and weight. All participants were administered the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Experiences in Close Relationships- Revised Questionnaire. On the basis of the obtained data, an Independent Samples t-test was done to see if there existed any significant difference between the groups. A Pearson’s coefficient correlation was performed for the total sample and a Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to see if any of the variables were significant predictors of BMI for the present sample. Results: Significant differences existed between the groups in case of neuroticism, extraversion, openness and conscientiousness. The BMI of adults in the present sample has a significant positive correlation with openness and anxious attachment in romantic relationships and a significant negative correlation with extraversion and conscientiousness. Openness and conscientiousness were also significant predictors of BMI for the present sample. Conclusion: The study adds significant findings to the interaction of obesity with the big five personality traits and sheds light on how attachment in romantic relationships is often affected by the weight stigma.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 17-39
Author(s):  
Alexandre Granjard ◽  
Kevin M. Cloninger ◽  
Erik Lindskär ◽  
Christian Jacobsson ◽  
Sverker Sikström ◽  
...  

Background: Long-term unemployment is associated with psychiatric problems, higher risk of suicide, low levels of well-being, and high levels of burnout. In this context, among other factors such as sociodemographic status and IQ, specific personality traits are important for individuals’ chances to finding a job, getting hired, and retaining that job, as well as for coping with the mental health risks related to long-term unemployment. Thus, in order to use person-centered methods to promote public health and sustainable employment during the current and future challenges of the 21st century, an important research area is the mapping and understanding of personality profiles of individuals who are unemployed.  Objectives: We mapped the personality traits and profiles in a sample of Swedish long-term unemployed (i.e., ≥ 6 months without work) in relation to a control group from the Swedish general population. Method: 245 long-term unemployed individuals (136 men and 157 women, range 18 to 60 years; M = 25.7; SD = 9.6) were recruited at the beginning of different well-being and employment projects in Blekinge, Sweden. The participants reported gender, age, and other basic demographics, as well as their personality using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). We calculated the T-scores and percentiles for the personality traits using the Swedish normative data (N = 1,948) and clustered participants in different temperament (high/low novelty seeking: N/n, high/low harm avoidance: H/h, high/low reward dependence: R/r) and character profiles (high/low self-directedness: S/s, high/low cooperativeness: C/c, high/low self-transcendence: T/t). Results: Compared to the general population, the long-term unemployed were extremely higher in harm avoidance (> 1.5 standard deviation), moderately lower in persistence (> 0.5 standard deviation), extremely lower in self-directedness (> 2 standard deviations), and moderately lower in novelty seeking (> 0.5 standard deviation). That is, consistent with past research, our study shows that the personality of long-term unemployed is denoted by being pessimistic, fearful, easily fatigable, underachieving, blaming, helpless, and unfulfilled (i.e., high harm avoidance, low persistence, and low self-directedness), but also by being reserved and rigid (i.e., low novelty seeking). Furthermore, within the unemployed population, as much as 71.60% reported a methodical (nHr) or cautious profile (nHR), and as much as 64.00% reported an apathetic (sct) or a disorganized profile (scT). Moreover, the profile analyses allowed us to show that, within this unemployed population and in relation to each individual’s own profile, about 91.70% were high in harm avoidance, 98.60% were low in self-directedness, 64.00% were low in cooperativeness, and 44.40% low in self-transcendence. Conclusions: These results indicate a high predictive value by the TCI, especially regarding the specific basic health-related traits or abilities (i.e., self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) needed to cope with the risks related to unemployment. Specifically, long-term unemployed populations have temperament profiles that present difficulties for them to adapt to the circumstances of unemployment, but also finding, getting, and retaining a job and character profiles that diminish their possibilities to self-regulate the emotions derived from their temperament through self-directed choices that improve their health and all aspects of their lives. Hence, evidence-based interventions targeting stress reduction and the development of health-related traits or abilities (i.e., self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) are urgently needed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Giulia Ongaro ◽  
Clizia Cincidda ◽  
Valeria Sebri ◽  
Lucrezia Savioni ◽  
Stefano Triberti ◽  
...  

The Italian state adopted serious safety measures to manage the COVID-19 pandemic in the year 2020. The lockdown was associated with negative psychological consequences in healthy populations, mostly in terms of anxiety, distress, depression, and even traumatic symptoms. This longitudinal study aimed at briefly documenting the psychological impact among an Italian sample, in terms of worry and its impact on psychological well-being levels, of the first wave of COVID-19, taking into account the changes in the lockdown scenario. A three-time follow-up survey was administered to 177 subjects (Female: 78%, Mage = 36.33), during (T0), at the end (T1), and 3 months after the end of the first lockdown (T2). Since the first wave of COVID-19, results showed a decrease in worry and the perception of virus diffusion’s controllability over time while psychological well-being increased. Furthermore, factors such as personality traits (neuroticism and agreeableness) and dysfunctional coping strategies predicted increases in worry levels at the end of the lockdown and 3 months after in the Italian context. However, worry levels during and at the end of the lockdown did not predict well-being levels 3 months after the end of the lockdown. Based on these findings, mental health policymakers should design tailored interventions able to improve the perception of virus diffusion management, as well as address the psychological needs of Italian citizens and support it, including a plan for the follow-up evaluation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 11276
Author(s):  
Donata Petružytė ◽  
Violeta Gevorgianienė ◽  
Jūratė Charenkova ◽  
Miroslavas Seniutis ◽  
Laimutė Žalimienė ◽  
...  

Numerous studies have focused on the issue of client aggression against various help professionals. Much less attention has been paid to the opposite phenomenon—the aggression of help professionals towards clients, especially aggression of child rights protection specialists (CRPS). Comparative analysis of four perspectives (CRPS, parents, children, and police officers) was performed in order to reveal the manifestations and preconditions of CRPS aggression towards parents and children during the process of removing a child from a family. The manifestations of psychological and physical CRPS aggression were alluded to by all groups of research participants. The preconditions can be classified as being related to the behavior of the child and parents, the employee’s personality traits, competencies and psychological states related to a specific work situation, and institutional, inter-institutional, social, and political contexts. Based on our research results, suggestions can be made on how the procedure of removing a child from an unsafe family environment can be improved, such as by making it less harmful for children, more constructive for the whole family, and making the CRP system operate in such a manner that it does not create preconditions for CRPS to transgress the boundaries of professional relations.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-30
Author(s):  
Jada Flint ◽  
Lisa Cohen ◽  
Diyaree Nath ◽  
Zara Habib ◽  
Xufei Guo ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (6) ◽  
pp. 139-154
Author(s):  
Agata Zdun-Ryzewska ◽  
◽  
Natalia Nadrowska ◽  
Krzysztof Basinski ◽  
Maciej Walkiewicz ◽  
...  

The level of fatigue among medical students is increasing. Exhaustion is an essential symptom of burnout, which may occur even while a student. Our exploratory study sought to identify the characteristics of tired students and to describe factors determining fatigue among medical students. The studied group consisted of second-year medical students (N=193) from a Polish medical university. Statistically significant differences in fatigue appeared between male and female students. We obtained positive correlations between intensity of fatigue and sleepiness, pain intensity, stress, anxiety, depression and negative health conditions, life satisfaction, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and self-efficacy. Predictors relevant for female fatigue were sleepiness, health condition, depression, and conscientiousness (the whole model explains 46% of variance in fatigue). Predictors relevant for male fatigue were sleepiness, health condition, anxiety, and agreeableness (the whole model explains 55% of variance in fatigue). We did not observe differences in fatigue between sleepless, overloaded, or stressed people. Explaining the differences between male and female predictors and levels of fatigue in terms of personality traits through the prism of defined stereotypical social roles is worth considering.


Author(s):  
Liam Gabb ◽  
Helen Nicholas ◽  
Rajesh Abraham ◽  
Vineet Prakash ◽  
Harry Boothby

Author(s):  
Xinjie Chen ◽  
Jinbo He ◽  
Elizabeth Swanson ◽  
Zhihui Cai ◽  
Xitao Fan

2021 ◽  
pp. 097215092110443
Author(s):  
Sajid Iqbal ◽  
Ahmad Raza Bilal

The study documented the way forwards to sustain investment performance, and answered that why emotional beasts (e.g. small investors) are irrational in managing their investment performance, in Pakistan stock exchange (PSX). For this, reasons and challenges are identified to give solutions by testing the intervening link of non-cognitive individual differences (NCIDs) of small investors between investor’s personality traits and investment performance. Using multi-stage cluster sampling, the responses of small investors (n = 248) were taken and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to draw an inference between constructs. Our result traced mediating role of NCIDs between investor’s personality traits and investment performance. The findings extended the notion that small investors are the emotional investors and emotional disparities in the behavior of small investors are making PSX market conditions as slippery. In return to these inconsistencies, PSX is generating lower rate of return and a weak form of investment efficiency, on regular basis. Therefore, this is important to review and revise PSX’ investment mechanism and offer a sustainable and viable business plan for effective PROI acquisition, enhancing investor base by listing the maximum number of new companies, rigorously teaching and training small investors and updating databases accordingly. Our recommendations would be helpful to uplift the confidence in small investors’, depth in PSX asset base, market efficiency and rational trading. By achieving these proponents in PSX highly guarantees a strong investment performance and to turn the horde of such emotional beasts into a team of rational investors.


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