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2021 ◽  
Marius Frenken ◽  
Roland Imhoff

Conspiracy theories arise for virtually any public event (e.g., pandemics, assassinations, disasters). In light of positively correlated endorsements of such beliefs, many have pointed to a more general mindset behind this. Others have argued against this notion of a consistent mindset. Applying Latent Profile Analyses, we examine the evidence for either uniform or differentiated response patterns to various items in five studies (reanalyzed datasets, total N = 7877). Overall, the results speak strongly to uniform reactions that could be summarized as a general mindset, but also revealed important qualifications. First, small parts of the samples show more differentiated patterns in relation to extraterrestrial cover-up narratives (Studies 2 to 4) or contradictory theories (Study 5). Second, indicators dealing with the general suppression of relevant information in the public were among the items with the highest approval ratings across all classes. One discussed implication is that existing scales are useful tools to measure conspiracy mindsets. Another implication is that the average endorsement of any conspiracy theory is a function of both the respondents’ conspiracy mindset and the item’s psychometric difficulty, strongly suggesting interpreting item endorsement only in relative terms, but refraining from interpreting a high agreement as an absolute number.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Honglv Xu ◽  
Yi Zhang ◽  
Min Yuan ◽  
Liya Ma ◽  
Meng Liu ◽  

Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the latent class of basic reproduction number (R0) trends of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the major endemic areas of China.Methods: The provinces that reported more than 500 cases of COVID-19 till February 18, 2020 were selected as the major endemic areas. The Verhulst model was used to fit the growth rate of cumulative confirmed cases. The R0 of COVID-19 was calculated using the parameters of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. The latent class of R0 was analyzed using the latent profile analysis (LPA) model.Results: The median R0 calculated from the SARS and COVID-19 parameters were 1.84–3.18 and 1.74–2.91, respectively. The R0 calculated from the SARS parameters was greater than that calculated from the COVID-19 parameters (Z = −4.782 to −4.623, p < 0.01). Both R0 can be divided into three latent classes. The initial value of R0 in class 1 (Shandong Province, Sichuan Province, and Chongqing Municipality) was relatively low and decreased slowly. The initial value of R0 in class 2 (Anhui Province, Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province, Guangdong Province, and Jiangsu Province) was relatively high and decreased rapidly. Moreover, the initial R0 value of class 3 (Hubei Province) was in the range between that of classes 1 and 2, but the higher R0 level lasted longer and decreased slowly.Conclusion: The results indicated that the overall R0 trend is decreased with the strengthening of comprehensive prevention and control measures of China for COVID-19, however, there are regional differences.

2021 ◽  
Andero Uusberg

How might we model the processes involved in regulating emotions via reappraisal? In two complementary studies, we tested the idea that reappraisal effects on emotion are mediated by shifts along appraisal dimensions. In an experimental Study 1, 437 students recalled a recent distressing event and rated their appraisals and emotions before and after using reappraisal to feel less negative about the event. Between 19% and 49% of changes to different emotions were statistically mediated by shifts along ten appraisal dimensions. Latent profile analyses suggested that the appraisal shifts reflected four distinct reappraisal tactics. These findings were conceptually replicated in a second intensive longitudinal study, where 168 participants rated their appraisals and emotions in relation to maximum of 3 emotional events for 7 days, first within an hour of the event and again in the evening when they also reported on emotion regulation use (1142 observations). Between 22% and 46% of changes to different emotions accompanying reappraisal use were mediated by shifts along appraisal dimensions. Appraisal shifts were significantly less relevant for otherwise regulated and spontaneous emotion changes. Relative to Study 1, the latent profile analyses of Study 2 revealed two similar and four novel reappraisal tactics reflecting a broader set of events. Across both studies, all appraisal dimensions were involved in at least one tactic and no dimension was involved in all of them, highlighting the importance of appraisal profiles. These findings suggest that appraisal shift profiles can be part of a useful model of cognitive processes underlying reappraisal.

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