Observational Study
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 214
Author(s):  
Kotamraju Rama Priyanka ◽  

Prospective observational study of estimation of serum bicarbonate levels in patients of CKD and association of serum bicarbonate levels with mortality among CKD patients attending department of Internal medicine and Nephrology.


2021 ◽  
pp. emermed-2021-211390
Author(s):  
Travis Lines ◽  
Christine Burdick ◽  
Xanthea Dewez ◽  
Emogene Aldridge ◽  
Tom Neal-Williams ◽  
...  

BackgroundTo compare the clinical and demographic variables of patients who present to the ED at different times of the day in order to determine the nature and extent of potential selection bias inherent in convenience samplingMethodsWe undertook a retrospective, observational study of data routinely collected in five EDs in 2019. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who presented with abdominal or chest pain, headache or dyspnoea were enrolled. For each patient group, the discharge diagnoses (primary outcome) of patients who presented during the day (08:00–15:59), evening (16:00-23:59), and night (00:00-07:59) were compared. Demographics, triage category and pain score, and initial vital signs were also compared.Results2500 patients were enrolled in each of the four patient groups. For patients with abdominal pain, the diagnoses differed significantly across the time periods (p<0.001) with greater proportions of unspecified/unknown cause diagnoses in the evening (47.4%) compared with the morning (41.7%). For patients with chest pain, heart rate differed (p<0.001) with a mean rate higher in the evening (80 beats/minute) than at night (76). For patients with headache, mean patient age differed (p=0.004) with a greater age in the daytime (46 years) than the evening (41). For patients with dyspnoea, discharge diagnoses differed (p<0.001). Asthma diagnoses were more common at night (12.6%) than during the daytime (7.5%). For patients with dyspnoea, there were also differences in gender distribution (p=0.003), age (p<0.001) and respiratory rates (p=0.003) across the time periods. For each patient group, the departure status differed across the time periods (p<0.001).ConclusionPatients with abdominal or chest pain, headache or dyspnoea differ in a range of clinical and demographic variables depending upon their time of presentation. These differences may potentially introduce selection bias impacting upon the internal validity of a study if convenience sampling of patients is undertaken.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Klára Fekete ◽  
Judit Tóth ◽  
László Horváth ◽  
Sándor Márton ◽  
Máté Héja ◽  
...  

Introduction: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease, which may lead to severe disability or even death. Although many factors may influence the outcome, neurophysiological examinations might also play a role in its course. Our aim was to examine whether the findings of electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can predict the prognosis of these patients.Methods: Between June 1 2017 and June 15 2021, 116 consecutive patients with ICH were enrolled prospectively in our observational study. Clinical examinations and non-Contrast computed tomography (NCCT) scan were done on admission for ICH; follow-up NCCT scans were taken at 14 ± 2 days and at 3 months ± 7 days after stroke onset. EEG and TMS examinations were also carried out.Results: Of the patients in the study, 65.5% were male, and the mean age of the study population was 70 years. Most patients had a history of hypertension, 50.8% of whom had been untreated. In almost 20% of the cases, excessive hypertension was measured on admission, accompanied with &gt;10 mmol/L blood glucose level, whereas their Glasgow Coma Scale was 12 on average. Presence of blood in the ventricles or subarachnoid space and high blood and perihematomal volumes meant poor prognosis. Pathological EEG was prognostic of a worse outcome. With TMS examination at 14 days, it might be possible to estimate outcome in a univariate model and the absence, or reduction of the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials was associated with poor prognosis.Conclusion: Together with the clinical symptoms, the volume of bleeding, perihematomal edema (or their combined volume), and neurophysiological examinations like EEG and TMS play an important role in the neurological outcome of patients with ICH. This might affect the patients' rehabilitation plans in the future, since with the help of the examinations the subset of patients with potential for recovery could be identified.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Emma Claire Palmer-Cooper ◽  
Abigail Christine Wright ◽  
Nicola McGuire

Background: Unusual experiences in Tulpamancer and Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) communities are generally positive and sought after, unlike hallucinations and delusions in clinical populations. Metacognition, the ability to reflect on self-referential experiences, may aid sense-making around unusual experiences, reducing distress. This study investigated group differences in hallucination-proneness, delusion-proneness, and metacognition in these communities compared to controls, and whether metacognition predicted unusual experiences. Methods: 243 participants reporting ASMR, Tulpamancy, or neither, with no history of psychosis, took part in an online observational study. Participants completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, Metacognitions Questionnaire-30, and Brief Core Schema Scales to capture metacognition. A Tulpamancer+ (reporting ASMR) group was identified and included in analyses. ANCOVAs highlighted group differences in hallucination-proneness, with Tulpamancer+ scoring higher, and metacognitive beliefs, with Tulpamancers reporting lower metacognitive belief endorsement. There were no group differences in delusion-proneness, self-reflection, or self-schemas. Stepwise regression demonstrated metacognition does influence unusual experiences in the non-clinical population, and this influence varies across groups. Conclusions: In non-clinical populations, unusual sensory experiences are not associated with increased metacognitive beliefs, but having multiple unusual experiences is associated with higher hallucination-proneness. Results suggest improving metacognition in clinical groups may help reduce distress related to unusual sensory experiences.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Koshi Ota ◽  
Daisuke Nishioka ◽  
Yuri Ito ◽  
Emi Hamada ◽  
Naomi Mori ◽  
...  

AbstractBlood cultures are indispensable for detecting life-threatening bacteremia. Little is known about associations between contamination rates and topical disinfectants for blood collection in adults. We sought to determine whether a change in topical disinfectants was associated with the rates of contaminated blood cultures in the emergency department of a single institution. This single-center, retrospective observational study of consecutive patients aged 20 years or older was conducted in the emergency department (ED) of a university hospital in Japan between August 1, 2018 and September 30, 2020. Pairs of blood samples were collected for aerobic and anaerobic culture from the patients in the ED. Physicians selected topical disinfectants according to their personal preference before September 1, 2019; alcohol/chlorhexidine gluconate (ACHX) was mandatory thereafter, unless the patient was allergic to alcohol. Regression discontinuity analysis was used to detect the effect of the mandatory usage of ACHX on rates of contaminated blood cultures. We collected 2141 blood culture samples from 1097 patients and found 164 (7.7%) potentially contaminated blood cultures. Among these, 445 (20.8%) were true bacteremia and 1532 (71.6%) were true negatives. Puncture site disinfection was performed with ACHX for 1345 (62.8%) cases and with povidone-iodine (PVI) for 767 (35.8%) cases. The regression discontinuity analysis showed that mandatory ACHX usage was significantly associated with lower rates of contaminated blood cultures by 9.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0%–14.2%, P < 0.001). Rates of contaminated blood cultures were significantly lower when ACHX was used as the topical disinfectant.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258182
Author(s):  
Kirstin Woody Scott ◽  
Angela Liu ◽  
Carina Chen ◽  
Alexander S. Kaldjian ◽  
Amber K. Sabbatini ◽  
...  

Background Healthcare spending in the emergency department (ED) setting has received intense focus from policymakers in the United States (U.S.). Relatively few studies have systematically evaluated ED spending over time or disaggregated ED spending by policy-relevant groups, including health condition, age, sex, and payer to inform these discussions. This study’s objective is to estimate ED spending trends in the U.S. from 2006 to 2016, by age, sex, payer, and across 154 health conditions and assess ED spending per visit over time. Methods and findings This observational study utilized the National Emergency Department Sample, a nationally representative sample of hospital-based ED visits in the U.S. to measure healthcare spending for ED care. All spending estimates were adjusted for inflation and presented in 2016 U.S. Dollars. Overall ED spending was $79.2 billion (CI, $79.2 billion-$79.2 billion) in 2006 and grew to $136.6 billion (CI, $136.6 billion-$136.6 billion) in 2016, representing a population-adjusted annualized rate of change of 4.4% (CI, 4.4%-4.5%) as compared to total healthcare spending (1.4% [CI, 1.4%-1.4%]) during that same ten-year period. The percentage of U.S. health spending attributable to the ED has increased from 3.9% (CI, 3.9%-3.9%) in 2006 to 5.0% (CI, 5.0%-5.0%) in 2016. Nearly equal parts of ED spending in 2016 was paid by private payers (49.3% [CI, 49.3%-49.3%]) and public payers (46.9% [CI, 46.9%-46.9%]), with the remainder attributable to out-of-pocket spending (3.9% [CI, 3.9%-3.9%]). In terms of key groups, the majority of ED spending was allocated among females (versus males) and treat-and-release patients (versus those hospitalized); those between age 20–44 accounted for a plurality of ED spending. Road injuries, falls, and urinary diseases witnessed the highest levels of ED spending, accounting for 14.1% (CI, 13.1%-15.1%) of total ED spending in 2016. ED spending per visit also increased over time from $660.0 (CI, $655.1-$665.2) in 2006 to $943.2 (CI, $934.3-$951.6) in 2016, or at an annualized rate of 3.4% (CI, 3.3%-3.4%). Conclusions Though ED spending accounts for a relatively small portion of total health system spending in the U.S., ED spending is sizable and growing. Understanding which diseases are driving this spending is helpful for informing value-based reforms that can impact overall health care costs.


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