Latent Profile Analysis
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Honglv Xu ◽  
Yi Zhang ◽  
Min Yuan ◽  
Liya Ma ◽  
Meng Liu ◽  

Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the latent class of basic reproduction number (R0) trends of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the major endemic areas of China.Methods: The provinces that reported more than 500 cases of COVID-19 till February 18, 2020 were selected as the major endemic areas. The Verhulst model was used to fit the growth rate of cumulative confirmed cases. The R0 of COVID-19 was calculated using the parameters of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. The latent class of R0 was analyzed using the latent profile analysis (LPA) model.Results: The median R0 calculated from the SARS and COVID-19 parameters were 1.84–3.18 and 1.74–2.91, respectively. The R0 calculated from the SARS parameters was greater than that calculated from the COVID-19 parameters (Z = −4.782 to −4.623, p < 0.01). Both R0 can be divided into three latent classes. The initial value of R0 in class 1 (Shandong Province, Sichuan Province, and Chongqing Municipality) was relatively low and decreased slowly. The initial value of R0 in class 2 (Anhui Province, Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province, Guangdong Province, and Jiangsu Province) was relatively high and decreased rapidly. Moreover, the initial R0 value of class 3 (Hubei Province) was in the range between that of classes 1 and 2, but the higher R0 level lasted longer and decreased slowly.Conclusion: The results indicated that the overall R0 trend is decreased with the strengthening of comprehensive prevention and control measures of China for COVID-19, however, there are regional differences.

Alesandra A. de Souza ◽  
Jorge A. P. S. Mota ◽  
Gustavo M. G. da Silva ◽  
Rafael M. Tassitano ◽  
Cain C. T. Clark ◽  

This study identifies physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) clusters in preschoolers compliant (C) or non-compliant (NC) with sleep recommendations; and associates these clusters with obesity markers. PA and SB were objectively assessed (Actigraph WGT3-X) in 272 preschoolers (4.4 ± 0.7 years old). Sleep duration was parent-reported, and preschoolers were classified as C (3–4 years old: 600–780 min/day; 5 years old: 540–660 min/day) or NC with sleep recommendations. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed according to international protocols. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light physical activity (LPA) were categorized as low/high (<60 min/>60 min/day or <180 min/180 min/day, respectively). SB was defined according to mean values between clusters. Latent profile analysis was performed. Associations between the observed clusters and obesity markers were determined using linear regression (RStudio; 1.3.1073). Four cluster solutions for C and NC preschoolers were identified. A negative association between C/Low MVPA cluster and BMI, and a positive association between NC/Low MVPA and BMI (β = −0.8, 95%CI = −1.6;−0.1, and β = 0.9, 95%CI = 0.1;1.7, respectively) were observed. No association was seen for SB clusters. Adequate sleep duration may have a protective role for preschoolers’ BMI, even if the children do not comply with MVPA recommendations.

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