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2021 ◽  
Shin Watanabe ◽  
Tadashi Shinoda ◽  
Masaaki Minagawa ◽  
Mari Toya ◽  
Daisuke Motooka ◽  

Abstract Background: Scientists previously believed that bacteria could not grow in bile, which is rich in bacteriostatic compounds such as bile acids. Therefore, the biliary tract was considered to be a sterile environment. However, high-throughput (i.e., amplicon) sequencing analysis methods have recently been used to discover the bacterial flora in gallbladder bile in brain-dead patients with normal gallbladders. In a bacterial flora analysis targeting the 16S ribosomal gene, a specific flora was present in the bile of normal gallbladders. However, these results were not obtained from truly healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the microbial flora of bile collected from pathologically normal gallbladders that were surgically removed from patients with hepatobiliary pancreatic diseases who had normal liver function.Results: All 12 bile samples obtained from the gallbladders had negative culture results, although a bacterial flora was detected in all samples via 16S ribosome gene analysis. The composition of the bacterial flora was very simple, and the Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria phyla were identified in all samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, the composition ratio accounted for more than 80% of the total number of reads. The Anaerobacillus, Delftia, Bacillus, Ralstonia, Ochrobactrum, Acidovorax, and Curvibacter genera were detected in all 12 samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, at the genus level, Anaerobacillus and Delftia accounted for 58.62%–87.63% of the identified bacteria in each sample. Conclusions: In this study, the bacterial flora in the gallbladder bile was not diverse. Contrary to previous reports, few bacteria belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum were detected. The functional significance of the gallbladder bacterial flora requires further investigation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Honglv Xu ◽  
Yi Zhang ◽  
Min Yuan ◽  
Liya Ma ◽  
Meng Liu ◽  

Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the latent class of basic reproduction number (R0) trends of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the major endemic areas of China.Methods: The provinces that reported more than 500 cases of COVID-19 till February 18, 2020 were selected as the major endemic areas. The Verhulst model was used to fit the growth rate of cumulative confirmed cases. The R0 of COVID-19 was calculated using the parameters of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. The latent class of R0 was analyzed using the latent profile analysis (LPA) model.Results: The median R0 calculated from the SARS and COVID-19 parameters were 1.84–3.18 and 1.74–2.91, respectively. The R0 calculated from the SARS parameters was greater than that calculated from the COVID-19 parameters (Z = −4.782 to −4.623, p < 0.01). Both R0 can be divided into three latent classes. The initial value of R0 in class 1 (Shandong Province, Sichuan Province, and Chongqing Municipality) was relatively low and decreased slowly. The initial value of R0 in class 2 (Anhui Province, Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province, Guangdong Province, and Jiangsu Province) was relatively high and decreased rapidly. Moreover, the initial R0 value of class 3 (Hubei Province) was in the range between that of classes 1 and 2, but the higher R0 level lasted longer and decreased slowly.Conclusion: The results indicated that the overall R0 trend is decreased with the strengthening of comprehensive prevention and control measures of China for COVID-19, however, there are regional differences.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2167
Hewen Hu ◽  
Yue Li ◽  
Long Zhang ◽  
Huajie Tu ◽  
Xinyu Wang ◽  

Pork fat in sausage was replaced by tremella at different proportions during the process, and the physicochemical and sensory profiles of pork sausage were evaluated. Five recipes with the replacement proportion of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% tremella were manufactured, and their proximate compositions, water activities, textures, colors, water holding capacities (WHC), and amino acid compositions were investigated. The results showed that the protein, ash and moisture content, lightness, redness, and WHC of pork sausages were increased (p < 0.05), and textural profile analysis (TPA) and sensory quality of the sausage were improved (p < 0.05). In addition, the content of essential amino acids (lysine and isoleucine) and the non-essential amino acids (proline and tyrosine) of sausages were increased (p < 0.05). The sausage had the best sensory performance when the replacement ratio of tremella was 75%. These results indicated that replacing fat with tremella could be a valid way to obtain nutritional and healthy sausage.

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