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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Zhiqiang Pan ◽  
Fei Cai ◽  
Wanyu Chen ◽  
Honghui Chen

Session-based recommendation aims to generate recommendations merely based on the ongoing session, which is a challenging task. Previous methods mainly focus on modeling the sequential signals or the transition relations between items in the current session using RNNs or GNNs to identify user’s intent for recommendation. Such models generally ignore the dynamic connections between the local and global item transition patterns, although the global information is taken into consideration by exploiting the global-level pair-wise item transitions. Moreover, existing methods that mainly adopt the cross-entropy loss with softmax generally face a serious over-fitting problem, harming the recommendation accuracy. Thus, in this article, we propose a Graph Co-Attentive Recommendation Machine (GCARM) for session-based recommendation. In detail, we first design a Graph Co-Attention Network (GCAT) to consider the dynamic correlations between the local and global neighbors of each node during the information propagation. Then, the item-level dynamic connections between the output of the local and global graphs are modeled to generate the final item representations. After that, we produce the prediction scores and design a Max Cross-Entropy (MCE) loss to prevent over-fitting. Extensive experiments are conducted on three benchmark datasets, i.e., Diginetica, Gowalla, and Yoochoose. The experimental results show that GCARM can achieve the state-of-the-art performance in terms of Recall and MRR, especially on boosting the ranking of the target item.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-19
Hanrui Wu ◽  
Michael K. Ng

Hypergraphs have shown great power in representing high-order relations among entities, and lots of hypergraph-based deep learning methods have been proposed to learn informative data representations for the node classification problem. However, most of these deep learning approaches do not take full consideration of either the hyperedge information or the original relationships among nodes and hyperedges. In this article, we present a simple yet effective semi-supervised node classification method named Hypergraph Convolution on Nodes-Hyperedges network, which performs filtering on both nodes and hyperedges as well as recovers the original hypergraph with the least information loss. Instead of only reducing the cross-entropy loss over the labeled samples as most previous approaches do, we additionally consider the hypergraph reconstruction loss as prior information to improve prediction accuracy. As a result, by taking both the cross-entropy loss on the labeled samples and the hypergraph reconstruction loss into consideration, we are able to achieve discriminative latent data representations for training a classifier. We perform extensive experiments on the semi-supervised node classification problem and compare the proposed method with state-of-the-art algorithms. The promising results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Bo Chen ◽  
Hua Zhang ◽  
Yonglong Li ◽  
Shuang Wang ◽  
Huaifang Zhou ◽  

Abstract An increasing number of detection methods based on computer vision are applied to detect cracks in water conservancy infrastructure. However, most studies directly use existing feature extraction networks to extract cracks information, which are proposed for open-source datasets. As the cracks distribution and pixel features are different from these data, the extracted cracks information is incomplete. In this paper, a deep learning-based network for dam surface crack detection is proposed, which mainly addresses the semantic segmentation of cracks on the dam surface. Particularly, we design a shallow encoding network to extract features of crack images based on the statistical analysis of cracks. Further, to enhance the relevance of contextual information, we introduce an attention module into the decoding network. During the training, we use the sum of Cross-Entropy and Dice Loss as the loss function to overcome data imbalance. The quantitative information of cracks is extracted by the imaging principle after using morphological algorithms to extract the morphological features of the predicted result. We built a manual annotation dataset containing 1577 images to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. This method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on our dataset. Specifically, the precision, recall, IoU, F1_measure, and accuracy achieve 90.81%, 81.54%, 75.23%, 85.93%, 99.76%, respectively. And the quantization error of cracks is less than 4%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Liangliang Duan

Deep encoder-decoder networks have been adopted for saliency detection and achieved state-of-the-art performance. However, most existing saliency models usually fail to detect very small salient objects. In this paper, we propose a multitask architecture, M2Net, and a novel centerness-aware loss for salient object detection. The proposed M2Net aims to solve saliency prediction and centerness prediction simultaneously. Specifically, the network architecture is composed of a bottom-up encoder module, top-down decoder module, and centerness prediction module. In addition, different from binary cross entropy, the proposed centerness-aware loss can guide the proposed M2Net to uniformly highlight the entire salient regions with well-defined object boundaries. Experimental results on five benchmark saliency datasets demonstrate that M2Net outperforms state-of-the-art methods on different evaluation metrics.

Information ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Gang Sun ◽  
Hancheng Yu ◽  
Xiangtao Jiang ◽  
Mingkui Feng

Edge detection is one of the fundamental computer vision tasks. Recent methods for edge detection based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) typically employ the weighted cross-entropy loss. Their predicted results being thick and needing post-processing before calculating the optimal dataset scale (ODS) F-measure for evaluation. To achieve end-to-end training, we propose a non-maximum suppression layer (NMS) to obtain sharp boundaries without the need for post-processing. The ODS F-measure can be calculated based on these sharp boundaries. So, the ODS F-measure loss function is proposed to train the network. Besides, we propose an adaptive multi-level feature pyramid network (AFPN) to better fuse different levels of features. Furthermore, to enrich multi-scale features learned by AFPN, we introduce a pyramid context module (PCM) that includes dilated convolution to extract multi-scale features. Experimental results indicate that the proposed AFPN achieves state-of-the-art performance on the BSDS500 dataset (ODS F-score of 0.837) and the NYUDv2 dataset (ODS F-score of 0.780).

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 220
Liyu Lin ◽  
Chaoran She ◽  
Yun Chen ◽  
Ziyu Guo ◽  
Xiaoyang Zeng

For direction of arrival (DoA) estimation, the data-driven deep-learning method has an advantage over the model-based methods since it is more robust against model imperfections. Conventionally, networks are based singly on regression or classification and may lead to unstable training and limited resolution. Alternatively, this paper proposes a two-branch neural network (TB-Net) that combines classification and regression in parallel. The grid-based classification branch is optimized by binary cross-entropy (BCE) loss and provides a mask that indicates the existence of the DoAs at predefined grids. The regression branch refines the DoA estimates by predicting the deviations from the grids. At the output layer, the outputs of the two branches are combined to obtain final DoA estimates. To achieve a lightweight model, only convolutional layers are used in the proposed TB-Net. The simulation results demonstrated that compared with the model-based and existing deep-learning methods, the proposed method can achieve higher DoA estimation accuracy in the presence of model imperfections and only has a size of 1.8 MB.

Optics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 8-18
Haroon Zafar ◽  
Junaid Zafar ◽  
Faisal Sharif

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are nurturing clinical decision support systems for the detection and accurate modeling of coronary arterial plaques. However, efficient plaque characterization in time-constrained settings is still an open problem. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel automated classification architecture viable for the real-time clinical detection and classification of coronary artery plaques, and secondly, to use the novel dataset of OCT images for data augmentation. Further, the purpose is to validate the efficacy of transfer learning for arterial plaques classification. In this perspective, a novel time-efficient classification architecture based on DNNs is proposed. A new data set consisting of in-vivo patient Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images labeled by three trained experts was created and dynamically programmed. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) were used for populating the coronary aerial plaques dataset. We removed the fully connected layers, including softmax and the cross-entropy in the GoogleNet framework, and replaced them with the Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Our proposed architecture limits weight up-gradation cycles to only modified layers and computes the global hyper-plane in a timely, competitive fashion. Transfer learning was used for high-level discriminative feature learning. Cross-entropy loss was minimized by using the Adam optimizer for model training. A train validation scheme was used to determine the classification accuracy. Automated plaques differentiation in addition to their detection was found to agree with the clinical findings. Our customized fused classification scheme outperforms the other leading reported works with an overall accuracy of 96.84%, and multiple folds reduced elapsed time demonstrating it as a viable choice for real-time clinical settings.

Complexity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Zhiyong Fan ◽  
Jianmin Hou ◽  
Qiang Zang ◽  
Yunjie Chen ◽  
Fei Yan

River segmentation of remote sensing images is of important research significance and application value for environmental monitoring, disaster warning, and agricultural planning in an area. In this study, we propose a river segmentation model in remote sensing images based on composite attention network to solve the problems of abundant river details in images and the interference of non-river information including bridges, shadows, and roads. To improve the segmentation efficiency, a composite attention mechanism is firstly introduced in the central region of the network to obtain the global feature dependence of river information. Next, in this study, we dynamically combine binary cross-entropy loss that is designed for pixel-wise segmentation and the Dice coefficient loss that measures the similarity of two segmentation objects into a weighted one to optimize the training process of the proposed segmentation network. The experimental results show that compared with other semantic segmentation networks, the evaluation indexes of the proposed method are higher than those of others, and the river segmentation effect of CoANet model is significantly improved. This method can segment rivers in remote sensing images more accurately and coherently, which can meet the needs of subsequent research.

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