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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Fernando Colchero ◽  
Winnie Eckardt ◽  
Tara Stoinski

AbstractThe current COVID-19 pandemic has created unmeasurable damages to society at a global level, from the irreplaceable loss of life, to the massive economic losses. In addition, the disease threatens further biodiversity loss. Due to their shared physiology with humans, primates, and particularly great apes, are susceptible to the disease. However, it is still uncertain how their populations would respond in case of infection. Here, we combine stochastic population and epidemiological models to simulate the range of potential effects of COVID-19 on the probability of extinction of mountain gorillas. We find that extinction is sharply driven by increases in the basic reproductive number and that the probability of extinction is greatly exacerbated if the immunity lasts less than 6 months. These results stress the need to limit exposure of the mountain gorilla population, the park personnel and visitors, as well as the potential of vaccination campaigns to extend the immunity duration.

2021 ◽  
pp. 135481662110498
Aldo Salinas ◽  
Cristian Ortiz ◽  
Pablo Ponce ◽  
Javier Changoluisa

This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between tourism activity and the informal economy in 76 countries from 1995 to 2015. We explore this relationship at the global level and by country group, using panel, co-integration techniques that indicate the existence of a long-run co-integration relationship between tourism and informal economy for the whole sample and at the level of country groups. Additionally, the paper analyzes the long-run coefficients of the model by using fully modified ordinary least square regressions (FMOLS). The results from FMOLS evidence a negative and significant impact of tourism on the informal economy at the global level and in high, upper-middle, and lower-middle income countries, but a positive link in low-income countries. However, the results reveal a heterogeneous long-run relationship within country groups. Also, the result of the Dumitrescu-Hurlin Granger causality test indicates bidirectional causality in the global sample, but the direction of causality varies by country group. The main policy implication derived from our findings suggests that in order to reduce the size of informal economy, policy-makers should foster tourism activities. JEL Classification : J01, L83, C23, O57, C00, C01

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6854
Serenella Caravella ◽  
Valeria Costantini ◽  
Francesco Crespi

The rapid decarbonization of the global economy represents the main challenge for the next decades to combat climate change. The European Union (EU) is leading the negotiation process under the Paris Agreement and recently approved an ambitious unilateral mitigation strategy known as the European Green Deal (EGD). In this paper, we present a novel approach based on the analysis of patent data related to climate change and mitigation technologies (CCMTs) with the aim of describing the evolutionary pattern of the EU in green technology. Based on our analysis, two of our main results deserve attention. First, at the global level, the pace of generation of new green technologies as measured by patent data is slowing down in recent years. This trend, if not inverted, casts some doubts on the economic sustainability of the ambitious environmental targets set by the EC. Second, the current EU technological positioning with respect to green areas appears to be problematic in terms of technological sovereignty, with serious risks of potential technological dependences from other countries. Given the radical technological shift required for the implementation of a full decarbonization pattern, the EU must realize a mission-oriented technology policy with additional and directed investments to ensure technological independence, together with a low-carbon and energy secure economy.

Comunicar ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (70) ◽  
Jesús Arroyave-Cabrera ◽  
Rafael Gonzalez-Pardo

The objective of this article is to analyze the distinctive characteristics of research production in the field of communication in Latin American scientific communication journals. Meta-research is necessary because it allows re-evaluating the field and offers new horizons in knowledge production. Two studies were conducted: 1) Bibliometric analysis of 116 journals in eight databases and 24 publications in the Web of Science and Scopus; 2) Content analysis including that of 407 articles over a period of 10 years (2009–2018). The findings demonstrate a research trend in the Latin American region toward international standards, evidenced by a preponderance of empirical over essay studies. Universities in the region published most of the journals in the field and circulation was predominantly biannual. Contrary to expectations, the most widely disseminated topic was health communication, partly owing to a large sample of Brazilian journals. Within the empirical research, the qualitative approach was predominant. The interview was the most widely used research method in the region. Finally, the most used theories were agenda setting and framing. Imminent challenges arise, i.e., to strengthen indigenous theoretical production and to position the region's themes and reflection more decisively in knowledge production at a global level. El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar las características distintivas de la producción de investigación en el campo de la comunicación en las revistas científicas de comunicación latinoamericanas. La meta-investigación es necesaria, ya que permite revaluar el campo y ofrecer nuevos horizontes en la producción de conocimientos. Se realizaron 2 estudios: 1) Análisis bibliométrico a 116 revistas presentes en ocho bases de datos, y luego a 24 publicaciones presentes en Web of Science y Scopus; 2) Análisis de contenido, que incluye el análisis de 407 artículos en un periodo de 10 años (2009-2018). Los hallazgos demostraron una tendencia en la investigación en Latinoamérica a los estándares internacionales, evidenciada en la preponderancia de los estudios empíricos sobre los ensayísticos. Las universidades de la región editan la mayoría de las revistas del campo y predomina la circulación semestral. Contrario a las expectativas, la temática más difundida fue comunicación en salud, en parte por la muestra amplia de revistas brasileñas. Dentro de la investigación empírica predomina de manera amplia el enfoque cualitativo. La entrevista es el método de investigación más usado en la región. Finalmente, las teorías más usadas en Latinoamérica fueron el establecimiento de la agenda y el enmarque. Surgen desafíos inminentes: fortalecer la producción teórica autóctona y posicionar la reflexión y las temáticas de la región de manera más decida en la producción de conocimiento en el concierto global.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (3) ◽  
pp. 490-501
Roman V. Manshin ◽  
Abdul Latif Ghafari

The long-term cooperation between Russia and India in the investment field is analyzed. This cooperation is of great strategic importance not only for the development of these countries, but also for solving problems at the global level. The world is currently undergoing large-scale changes affecting various spheres of public life. On the basis of Russian and Indian statistics, as well as statistics of international organizations, conclusions are drawn about the uneven distribution of foreign direct investment between Russia and India, and their different position in the international movement of capital is indicated. Examples of specific investment projects between TNCs of the two countries are given. Prospects for investment cooperation between the two countries have been substantiated. The purpose of this research is to study investment cooperation between Russia and India. The theoretical basis of the study was the works of Russian and foreign authors, which examine the issues of the socio-economic situation of developing countries, and in particular, the economic development of India and Russian-Indian relations. The work used methods of analysis and comparison of theoretical positions, as well as methods of statistical and analogy, expert assessments. It was found that the most interesting projects for the Indian economy are the extraction of oil and other minerals, construction, trade, and real estate. For Russia, the sphere of manufacturing is of particular investment interest, as well as the sphere of trade and the financial sector.

2021 ◽  
Erik Lunsgaarde ◽  
Kevin Adams ◽  
Kendra Dupuy ◽  
Adis Dzebo ◽  
Mikkel Funder ◽  

As COP26 approaches, governments are facing calls to increase the ambition of their climate commitments under the Paris Agreement. The mobilization of climate finance will be key to meeting these goals, prompting the need for renewed attention on how to enhance the coordination of existing funds and thus increase their effectiveness, efficiency and equity. The climate finance landscape is fragmented due to the variety of actors involved at different levels. Coordination difficulties emerge in multiple arenas and reflect the diversity of funding sources, implementation channels, and sectors relevant for climate action (Lundsgaarde, Dupuy and Persson, 2018). The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development has identified over 90 climate-specific funds. Most of them are multilateral. While bilateral climate finance remains significant, growth in multilateral funding has been the main driver of recent funding increases and remains a focus of international negotiations. Practitioners often highlight organizational resource constraints – such as staffing levels, the continuity of personnel, or the availability of adequate information management systems – as factors limiting coordination. In this brief, we argue that improving climate finance coordination requires considering coordination challenges in a political context where both fund secretariats and external stakeholders play an important role in shaping collaboration prospects. To illustrate this point, we highlight the political nature of global-level coordination challenges between the multilateral Climate Investment Funds (CIF) and Green Climate Fund (GCF), as well as national-level challenges in Kenya and Zambia. Key challenges influencing coordination relate to the governance of climate funds, domestic bureaucratic politics in recipient countries, and the existence of multiple coordination frameworks at the country level.

Alireza Mirahmadizadeh ◽  
Fatemeh Rezaei ◽  
Kimia Jokari ◽  
Leyla Moftakhar ◽  
Abdolrasool Hemmati ◽  

Toxins ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 725
John F. Leslie ◽  
Antonio Moretti ◽  
Ákos Mesterházy ◽  
Maarten Ameye ◽  
Kris Audenaert ◽  

Mycotoxins in small grains are a significant and long-standing problem. These contaminants may be produced by members of several fungal genera, including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Claviceps, and Penicillium. Interventions that limit contamination can be made both pre-harvest and post-harvest. Many problems and strategies to control them and the toxins they produce are similar regardless of the location at which they are employed, while others are more common in some areas than in others. Increased knowledge of host-plant resistance, better agronomic methods, improved fungicide management, and better storage strategies all have application on a global basis. We summarize the major pre- and post-harvest control strategies currently in use. In the area of pre-harvest, these include resistant host lines, fungicides and their application guided by epidemiological models, and multiple cultural practices. In the area of post-harvest, drying, storage, cleaning and sorting, and some end-product processes were the most important at the global level. We also employed the Nominal Group discussion technique to identify and prioritize potential steps forward and to reduce problems associated with human and animal consumption of these grains. Identifying existing and potentially novel mechanisms to effectively manage mycotoxin problems in these grains is essential to ensure the safety of humans and domesticated animals that consume these grains.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Heather C. Bingham ◽  
James A. Fitzsimons ◽  
Brent A. Mitchell ◽  
Kent H. Redford ◽  
Sue Stolton

Protected areas are an essential component of global conservation efforts. Although extensive information is available on the location of protected areas governed by governments, data on privately protected areas remain elusive at the global level. These are areas governed by private individuals and groups—ranging from families to religious institutions to companies—that meet IUCN's definition of a protected area: a clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. As the world's governments prepare to adopt a new post-2020 global biodiversity framework to guide conservation over the next decade, we argue that, without complete data on privately protected areas, they do so without a vital piece of the puzzle.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Sunil Khandelwal ◽  
Khaled Aljifri

Purpose This study aims to compare the use of risk-sharing and risk-shifting contracts (RSFCs) in Islamic banks using a triple grouping of conservative, moderate and liberal Islamic banks based on the Khaled Khandelwal (KK) model. Six fundamental Islamic contracts are used in this study, namely, Mushãrakah, Mudãrabah, Murãbaha, Salam, Ijãrah, Istisnã. Mushãrakah and Mudãrabah represent profit and loss sharing contracts (i.e., risk-sharing contracts – RSHCs), whereas Murãbaha, Salam, Ijãrah and Istisnã represent RSFCs. This study extends the previous studies by addressing an issue that has been neglected in the literature. The extent to which the two groups of contracts are used is extremely important because of its effect on the valuation of Islamic banks and on their earning quality. Design/methodology/approach This study aims to analyze, using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, the use of RSHCs and RSFCs made by 72 fully Islamic banks, using a sample that includes banks in most of the countries where Islamic banks are present. Only fully Islamic Banks were considered, that is, banks that are essentially mainstream banks; therefore, banks that include only a specific line of Islamic products, often called the Islamic Window, were excluded. The total number of the sample was 118, but the study was restricted to 72 banks due to the availability of time series data covering the period of study, 2007 to 2015. Findings The study documents that over the period 2007 to 2015 the moderate banks have better distribution and balance of RSHCs and RSFCs than the conservative and liberal banks. The conservative banks are found to depend greatly on RSFCs, whereas the liberal banks are found to depend almost completely on RSFCs. Unexpectedly, the conservative banks have not shown a noticeable improvement over the period of analysis on their level of reliance on RSHCs. The results show that there is a significant difference in the percentage income distribution of the two contracts between the moderate banks and the conservative banks and between the moderate banks and the liberal banks. However, no significant difference was found between the conservative banks and the liberal banks. Originality/value The study uses an alternate rating model for Islamic financial institutions. The study examined the issue of risk sharing and risk shifting contracts usage in banks for a long period of nine years and at a global level and with an additional dimension of three categories of Islamic Banks based on the KK model.

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