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Updated Wednesday, 27 October 2021

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2604
Author(s):  
Yuan-Lun Hsieh ◽  
Maysam F. Abbod

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a type of neurodegenerative diseases. PD influences gait in many aspects: reduced gait speed and step length, increased axial rigidity, and impaired rhythmicity. Gait-related data used in this study are from PhysioNet. Twenty-one PD patients and five healthy controls (CO) were sorted into four groups: PD without task (PDw), PD with dual task (PDd), control without task (COw), and control with dual task (COd). Since dual task actions are attention demanding, either gait or cognitive function may be affected. To quantify the used walking data, eight pressure sensors installed in each insole are used to measure the vertical ground reaction force. Thus, quantitative measurement analysis is performed utilizing multiscale entropy (MSE) and complexity index (CI) to analyze and differentiate between the ground reaction force of the four different groups. Results show that the CI of patients with PD is higher than that of CO and 11 of the sensor signals are statistically significant (p < 0.05). The COd group has larger CI values at the beginning (p = 0.021) but they get lower at the end of the test (p = 0.000) compared to that in the COw group. The end-of-test CI for the PDw group is lower in one of the feet sensor signals, and in the right total ground reaction force compared to the PDd group counterparts. In conclusion, when people start to adjust their gait due to pathology or stress, CI may increase first and reach a peak, but it decreases afterward when stress or pathology is further increased.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2607
Author(s):  
Hui Hwang Goh ◽  
Xinyi Li ◽  
Chee Shen Lim ◽  
Dongdong Zhang ◽  
Wei Dai ◽  
...  

Model predictive control (MPC) has been proven to offer excellent model-based, highly dynamic control performance in grid converters. The increasingly higher power capacity of a PV inverter has led to the industrial preference of adopting higher DC voltage design at the PV array (e.g., 750–1500 V). With high array voltage, a single stage inverter offers advantages of low component count, simpler topology, and requiring less control tuning effort. However, it is typically entailed with the issue of high common-mode voltage (CMV). This work proposes a virtual-vector model predictive control method equipped with an improved common-mode reduction (CMR) space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). The modulation technique essentially subdivides the hexagonal voltage vector space into 18 sub-sectors, that can be split into two groups with different CMV properties. The proposal indirectly increases the DC-bus utilization and extends the overall modulation region with improved CMV. The comparison with the virtual-vector MPC scheme equipped with the conventional SVPWM suggests that the proposed technique can effectively suppress 33.33% of the CMV, and reduce the CMV toggling frequency per fundamental cycle from 6 to either 0 or 2 (depending on which sub-sector group). It is believed that the proposed control technique can help to improve the performance of photovoltaic single-stage inverters.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2601
Author(s):  
Vitor Monteiro ◽  
Luis F. C. Monteiro ◽  
Francesco Lo Franco ◽  
Riccardo Mandrioli ◽  
Mattia Ricco ◽  
...  

Electrical power grids are rapidly evolving into smart grids, with smart homes also making an important contribution to this. In fact, the well-known and emerging technologies of renewables, energy storage systems and electric mobility are each time more distributed throughout the power grid and included in smart homes. In such circumstances, since these technologies are natively operating in DC, it is predictable for a revolution in the electrical grid craving a convergence to DC grids. Nevertheless, traditional loads natively operating in AC will continue to be used, highlighting the importance of hybrid AC/DC grids. Considering this new paradigm, this paper has as main innovation points the proposed control algorithms regarding the role of front-end AC/DC converters in hybrid AC/DC smart homes, demonstrating their importance for providing unipolar or bipolar DC grids for interfacing native DC technologies, such as renewables and electric mobility, including concerns regarding the power quality from a smart grid point of view. Furthermore, the paper presents a clear description of the proposed control algorithms, aligned with distinct possibilities of complementary operation of front-end AC/DC converters in the perspective of smart homes framed within smart grids, e.g., enabling the control of smart homes in a coordinated way. The analysis and experimental results confirmed the suitability of the proposed innovative operation modes for hybrid AC/DC smart homes, based on two different AC/DC converters in the experimental validation.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2602
Author(s):  
Ramón A. Mollineda ◽  
Daniel Chía ◽  
Ruben Fernandez-Beltran ◽  
Javier Ortells

Arm swing during gait has been positively related to gait stability and gait efficiency, particularly in the presence of neurological disorders that affect locomotion. However, most gait studies have focused on lower extremities, while arm swing usually remains ignored. In addition, these studies are mostly based on costly, highly-specialized vision systems or on wearable devices which, despite their popularity among researchers and specialists, are still relatively uncommon for the general population. This work proposes a way of estimating arm swing asymmetry from a single 2D gait video. First, two silhouette-based representations that separately capture motion data from both arms were built. Second, a measure to quantify arm swing energy from such a representation was introduced, producing two side-dependent motion measurements. Third, an arm swing asymmetry index was obtained. The method was validated on two public datasets, one with 68 healthy subjects walking normally and one with 10 healthy subjects simulating different styles of arm swing asymmetry. The validity of the asymmetry index at capturing different arm swing patterns was assessed by two non-parametric tests: the Mann–Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The so-called physiological asymmetry was observed on the normal gait sequences of both datasets in a statistically similar way. The asymmetry index was able to fairly characterize the different levels of asymmetry simulated in the second set. Results show that it is possible to estimate the arm swing asymmetry from a single 2D gait video, with enough sensitivity to discriminate anomalous patterns from normality. This opens the door to low-cost easy-to-use mobile applications to assist clinicians in monitoring gait condition in primary care (e.g., in the elderly), when more accurate and specialized technologies are often not available.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2603
Author(s):  
Minh T. Nguyen ◽  
Cuong V. Nguyen ◽  
Hai T. Do ◽  
Hoang T. Hua ◽  
Thang A. Tran ◽  
...  

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are usually deployed to different areas of interest to sense phenomena, process sensed data, and take actions accordingly. The networks are integrated with many advanced technologies to be able to fulfill their tasks that is becoming more and more complicated. These networks tend to connect to multimedia networks and to process huge data over long distances. Due to the limited resources of static sensor nodes, WSNs need to cooperate with mobile robots such as unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in their developments. The mobile devices show their maneuverability, computational and energy-storage abilities to support WSNs in multimedia networks. This paper addresses a comprehensive survey of almost scenarios utilizing UAVs and UGVs with strogly emphasising on UAVs for data collection in WSNs. Either UGVs or UAVs can collect data from static sensor nodes in the monitoring fields. UAVs can either work alone to collect data or can cooperate with other UAVs to increase their coverage in their working fields. Different techniques to support the UAVs are addressed in this survey. Communication links, control algorithms, network structures and different mechanisms are provided and compared. Energy consumption or transportation cost for such scenarios are considered. Opening issues and challenges are provided and suggested for the future developments.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2606
Author(s):  
Cătălina Lucia COCIANU ◽  
Cristian Răzvan USCATU

The paper presents a new memetic, cluster-based methodology for image registration in case of geometric perturbation model involving translation, rotation and scaling. The methodology consists of two stages. First, using the sets of the object pixels belonging to the target image and to the sensed image respectively, the boundaries of the search space are computed. Next, the registration mechanism residing in a hybridization between a version of firefly population-based search procedure and the two membered evolutionary strategy computed on clustered data is applied. In addition, a procedure designed to deal with the premature convergence problem is embedded. The fitness to be maximized by the memetic algorithm is defined by the Dice coefficient, a function implemented to evaluate the similarity between pairs of binary images. The proposed methodology is applied on both binary and monochrome images. In case of monochrome images, a preprocessing step aiming the binarization of the inputs is considered before the registration. The quality of the proposed approach is measured in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The success rate based on Dice coefficient, normalized mutual information measures, and signal-to-noise ratio are used to establish the accuracy of the obtained algorithm, while the efficiency is evaluated by the run time function.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2600
Author(s):  
Yiyang Zhao ◽  
Yongjia Wang ◽  
Ruibo Wang ◽  
Yuan Rong ◽  
Xianyang Jiang

Since memristor was found, it has shown great application potential in neuromorphic computing. Currently, most neural networks based on memristors deploy the special analog characteristics of memristor. However, owing to the limitation of manufacturing process, non-ideal characteristics such as non-linearity, asymmetry, and inconsistent device periodicity appear frequently and definitely, therefore, it is a challenge to employ memristor in a massive way. On the contrary, a binary neural network (BNN) requires its weights to be either +1 or −1, which can be mapped by digital memristors with high technical maturity. Upon this, a highly robust BNN inference accelerator with binary sigmoid activation function is proposed. In the accelerator, the inputs of each network layer are either +1 or 0, which can facilitate feature encoding and reduce the peripheral circuit complexity of memristor hardware. The proposed two-column reference memristor structure together with current controlled voltage source (CCVS) circuit not only solves the problem of mapping positive and negative weights on memristor array, but also eliminates the sneak current effect under the minimum conductance status. Being compared to the traditional differential pair structure of BNN, the proposed two-column reference scheme can reduce both the number of memristors and the latency to refresh the memristor array by nearly 50%. The influence of non-ideal factors of memristor array such as memristor array yield, memristor conductance fluctuation, and reading noise on the accuracy of BNN is investigated in detail based on a newly memristor circuit model with non-ideal characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that when the array yield α ≥ 5%, or the reading noise σ ≤ 0.25, a recognition accuracy greater than 97% on the MNIST data set is achieved.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2605
Author(s):  
Donghoon Shin ◽  
Seunghoon Woo ◽  
Manbok Park

This paper describes a rollover index for detection or prediction of impending rollover in different driving situations using minimum sensor signals which can be easily obtained from an electronic stability control (ESC) system. The estimated lateral load transfer ratio (LTR) was used as a rollover index with only limited information such as the roll state of the vehicle and some constant parameters. A commercial vehicle has parameter uncertainties because of its load variation. This is likely to affect the driving performance and the estimation of the dynamic state of the vehicle. The main purpose of this paper is to determine the rollover index based on reliable measurements and the parameters of the vehicle. For this purpose, a simplified lateral and vertical vehicle dynamic model was used with some assumptions. The index is appropriate for various situations although the vehicle parameters may change. As part of the index, the road bank angle was investigated in this study, using limited information. Since the vehicle roll dynamics are affected by the road bank angle, the road bank angle should be incorporated, although previous studies ignore this factor in order to simplify the problem. Because it increases or reduces the chances of rollover, consideration of the road bank angle is indispensable in the rollover detection and mitigation function of the ESC system. The performance of the proposed algorithm was investigated via computer simulation studies. The simulation studies showed that the proposed estimation method of the LTR and road bank angle with limited sensor information followed the actual LTR value, reducing the parameter uncertainties. The simulation model was constructed based on a heavy bus (12 tons).


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2596
Author(s):  
Vedik Basetti ◽  
Shriram S. Rangarajan ◽  
Chandan Kumar Shiva ◽  
Harish Pulluri ◽  
Ritesh Kumar ◽  
...  

In the present paper, a novel meta-heuristic algorithm, namely quasi-oppositional search-based political optimizer (QOPO), is proposed to solve a non-convex single and bi-objective economic and emission load dispatch problem (EELDP). In the proposed QOPO technique, an opposite estimate candidate solution is performed simultaneously on each candidate solution of the political optimizer to find a better solution of EELDP. In the bi-objective EELDP, QOPSO is applied to simultaneously minimize fuel costs and emissions by considering various constraints such as the valve-point loading effect (VPLE) and generator limits for a generation. The effectiveness of the proposed QOPO technique has been applied on three units, six units, 10-units, 11-units, 13-units, and 40-unit systems by considering the VPLE, transmission line losses, and generator limits. The results obtained using the proposed QOPO are compared with those obtained by other techniques reported in the literature. The relative results divulge that the proposed QOPO technique has a good exploration and exploitation capability to determine the optimal global solution compared to the other methods provided in the literature without violation of any constraints and bounded limits.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2592
Author(s):  
Song Chen ◽  
Dunge Liu ◽  
Yubin Zhao

As radio-frequency (RF) based wireless energy harvesting technology can provide remote and continuous power to low-power devices, e.g., wireless sensors, it may be a substitute for batteries and extend the lifetime of the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a wireless energy harvesting localization system (WEHLoc), which contains batteryless wireless sensors as anchors and an energy access point (E-AP) to transfer power to the anchors. We consider a passive target localization scenario, in which the anchors monitor the target and send the sensed ranging data back to the E-AP. Additionally, we formulate the optimal estimation accuracy problem which is a 0–1 mixed-integer programming problem and relates to the energy beam, target transmitted power, and deployed anchor density. Then, we develop the power allocation scheme of the E-AP to solve the objective. In order to reduce the complexity, we propose a heuristic method that converts the maximum estimation accuracy problem into the energy efficiency problem and use linear programming to solve them. The simulations demonstrate that WEHLoc can be massively deployed in a wide area, and the estimation error and the power consumption are relatively low.


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