Abstract Behavior is a useful trait for comparative studies that provide the comprehension of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we present a description of two spiny-rats species’ behavioral repertoire, Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). The affiliative and agonistic behavioral patterns were sampled during a three-year study of captive populations of wild animals. Observational data were collected in two phases under different arrangements of individuals in groups. We also compare the behavioral traits of T. setosus and C. laticeps with the known behavioral patterns of Trinomys yonenagae. We add categories to the previous descriptions of T. setosus and a standard ethogram for C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus showed a visual and vocal display we called foot-trembling, which was not described in this form and function for other species studied until now. We discuss the differences in their sociality levels and similarities and differences among behavior patterns and repertoires.
Abstract Bacteria were isolated from samples of Fresh Apple juices from shops of three different localities of Lahore. Analysis of samples from Liberty, Anarkali and Yateem khana Markets show different levels of contamination. There were pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in all samples and were identified by the morphological and biochemical tests. Most of the plasmids of pathogenic bacteria were 4kb in their molecular size. Ribotyping of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was done to confirm Helicobacter pylori strain and Gluconobacter oxydans. The highest sensitivity of 210mm was shown by Enterobacter sp. against Aztheromysine disk (15µg) while Micrococcus sp. was highly resistant against all of the Antibiotics applied. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria was also checked against Ricinus communis plant's extracts, all isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant but only, E.coli was inhibited at 300µl of the extracts. Presence of pathogenic bacteria in Apple juice samples was due to contamination of sewage water in drinking water while some of these pathogenic bacteria came from Apple's tree and other from store houses of fruits.
As conversational search becomes more pervasive, it becomes increasingly important to understand the users’ underlying information needs when they converse with such systems in diverse domains. We conduct an in situ study to understand information needs arising in a home cooking context as well as how they are verbally communicated to an assistant. A human experimenter plays this role in our study. Based on the transcriptions of utterances, we derive a detailed hierarchical taxonomy of diverse information needs occurring in this context, which require different levels of assistance to be solved. The taxonomy shows that needs can be communicated through different linguistic means and require different amounts of context to be understood. In a second contribution, we perform classification experiments to determine the feasibility of predicting the type of information need a user has during a dialogue using the turn provided. For this multi-label classification problem, we achieve average F1 measures of 40% using BERT-based models. We demonstrate with examples which types of needs are difficult to predict and show why, concluding that models need to include more context information in order to improve both information need classification and assistance to make such systems usable.
Abstract Biofloc technology is much highlighted these days because of its tremendous effects on aquaculture. Microbes were enriched on cheapest organic carbon source i. e., powdered banana peels and were incorporated in different aquaria rearing grass carp fingerlings under different C/N treatments (10:1, 15:1 and 20:1) and 10% water daily water exchange. The initial growth of fingerlings was recorded. The experiment was settled in triplicates for 60 days and run parallel to control group provided with commercial feed and daily water exchange. Its effect was evaluated by measuring the growth of fingerlings and water parameters of each aquarium. The average % gain in weight and length of fingerlings was obtained significantly highest (28.12 ± 0.30g and 17.29 ± 0.46cm respectively) in aquaria containing pure powdered banana peels with 10% water exchange and C/N ratio was adjusted at 20: 1 (T3) than other treatments and control. Ammonia and other water parameters were also under control in T3 than other experimental and control groups. By all counts, it was concluded that the highest C/N ratio in biofloc system had the potential to increment C. idella growth rate by reducing toxicity and could be used as fish meal substitute.