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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (Sp.Issue) ◽  
Tiina Korhonen ◽  
Leenu Juurola ◽  
Laura Salo ◽  
Johanna Airaksinen

This case study explores how Finnish primary school teachers orchestrated school days and how teachers and headmasters organised virtual workplace collaboration and collaborated with parents during a period of distance education forced by the Covid-19 crisis in Spring 2020. The data was collected by interviewing primary and secondary school teachers (n = 15) from eight schools in various parts of Finland. Teachers’ experiences were analysed with qualitative content analysis. In this study, the school is seen as a Complex Adaptive System (CAS) and the Covid-19 crisis as a disorder forcing teachers to adapt to a rapidly changing environment. Teachers are viewed here as innovators who address both pedagogical and digital challenges under abnormal circumstances. We identify diverse practices at different stages of digitalisation during the distance education period within four domains: 1) structures of school days, 2) forms of teaching, 3) collaborative activities of teachers and headmaster, and 4) forms of home and school collaboration. We also identify three groups of enablers of distance education practices: 1) the use of digital technology, 2) digipedagogical competence of the teachers, and 3) the ability of teachers to act as adaptive innovators. We find that teachers’ ability to innovate and to adapt pedagogical and digipedagogical expertise become critical success factors when change is forced upon the educational field. We suggest that the results of this study, portrayed as the enablers and domains of distance education, be utilised in planning post-Covid education. All stakeholders influencing schools at different levels should be included in envisioning and implementing future classroom practices of innovative post-Covid schools.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (10) ◽  
pp. 1914-1938

Subject. This article considers the characteristics of socio-economic development of territorial systems of different levels. Objectives. The article aims to analyze the existing informal institutional systems that are described in the economic literature. Methods. For the study, I used the methods of analysis and synthesis, and a comparative analysis. Results. The article defines the main types of existing agglomerations and describes institutional gaps for municipalities in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Relevance. The results of the study can be applied in the process of institutional design.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 1248
Haishaerjiang Wushouer ◽  
Kexin Du ◽  
Shicai Chen ◽  
Yue Zhou ◽  
Bo Zheng ◽  

(1) Background: Few studies have focused on antibiotic use and appropriateness in children in primary health institutions (PHIs). This study aimed to identify the patterns and appropriateness of antibiotic use for children in PHIs in Beijing, China. (2) Methods: Outpatient prescriptions of 327 PHIs from 2017 to 2019 for patients < 18 years old were collected. Prescriptions were described using quantity indicators. Antibiotics were categorized according to ATC classification J01 and Access, Watch, Reserve grouping. Appropriateness was reviewed by experts using three subtypes of irrational prescriptions (irregular, inappropriate, and abnormal). (3) Results: 20,618 prescriptions were collected in total. The antibiotic prescription rate (APR) was 15.1% (N = 3113). Among antibiotic prescriptions, J01FA Macrolides were the most used (N = 1068, 34.9%). The Watch group constituted 89.0% (N = 2818) of total antibiotic use. Bronchitis (N = 1059, 35.2%) was the most common diagnosis. A total of 292 instances of irrational antibiotic use were identified, with inappropriate prescriptions being the most prevalent subtype (N = 233, 79.8%). (4) Conclusion: Although APR for children in PHIs in Beijing was relatively low, the pattern of antibiotic use differed from other countries. Further studies are needed to optimize antibiotic use for children in PHIs under different levels of economic development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (3) ◽  
pp. 260-279
Alla Mikhajlovna Manakhova ◽  
Nadezhda Stanislavovna Lagutina

This article is dedicated to the analysis of various stylometric characteristics combinations of different levels for the quality of verification of authorship of Russian, English and French prose texts. The research was carried out for both low-level stylometric characteristics based on words and symbols and higher-level structural characteristics.All stylometric characteristics were calculated automatically with the help of the ProseRhythmDetector program. This approach gave a possibility to analyze the works of a large volume and of many writers at the same time. During the work, vectors of stylometric characteristics of the level of symbols, words and structure were compared to each text. During the experiments, the sets of parameters of these three levels were combined with each other in all possible ways. The resulting vectors of stylometric characteristics were applied to the input of various classifiers to perform verification and identify the most appropriate classifier for solving the problem. The best results were obtained with the help of the AdaBoost classifier. The average F-score for all languages turned out to be more than 92 %. Detailed assessments of the quality of verification are given and analyzed for each author. Use of high-level stylometric characteristics, in particular, frequency of using N-grams of POS tags, offers the prospect of a more detailed analysis of the style of one or another author. The results of the experiments show that when the characteristics of the structure level are combined with the characteristics of the level of words and / or symbols, the most accurate results of verification of authorship for literary texts in Russian, English and French are obtained. Additionally, the authors were able to conclude about a different degree of impact of stylometric characteristics for the quality of verification of authorship for different languages.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 643
Marili Rõõm ◽  
Marina Lepp ◽  
Piret Luik

One of the problems regarding MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) is the high dropout rate. Although dropout periods have been studied, there is still a lack of understanding of how dropout differs for MOOCs with different levels of difficulty. A quantitative study was conducted to determine the periods with the highest dropouts in computer programming MOOCs and the performance of the dropouts on the course before dropping out. Four occurrences of three MOOCs, with different durations, difficulty of the topic, and the degree of supportive methods, were included. The results showed that dropout was highest at the beginning of all studied courses. Learners also dropped out before the project. In the easier and shorter courses, most dropouts were successful until they quit the course. In longer and more difficult courses, learners mainly dropped out in the week they started due to experiencing problems with the course activities. It is suggested to recommend that learners take courses at a level that suits them if their current course is too easy or difficult and encourage learners to use course resources for help. It would be a good idea to provide learners with example topics to assist them in starting with a project.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Ziqi Yan ◽  
Zhanchun Feng ◽  
Zhiming Jiao ◽  
Chaoyi Chen ◽  
Ganyi Wang ◽  

AbstractAdverse drug reactions (ADRs) may be a serious public health problem and have received widespread attention in recent years. This study has analyzed the factors leading to the occurrence of serious ADRs (SADRs), determined the factors affecting the prognosis of patients with severe adverse reactions at different levels of medical institutions, and finally made corresponding recommendations for the monitoring, prevention, and treatment of SADRs. We used descriptive analysis and chi-square test to analyze the year, age, gender, proportion of SADRs, and the results of the ADRs in the report. Use the logistic regression to analyze the factors affecting the prognosis of SADRs in different levels of medical institutions. A total of 387 642 people’s 394 037 ADRs were collected from the Henan Provincial Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center from 2016 to 2020. Among them 35 742 cases of serious ADRs (9.1%), 96.1% were eventually relieved or cured, but 39 cases of SADRs caused death. The main causes of death included hemorrhages, organ failure, and allergies. Age, number of medication and illnesses, level of medical institution, history of adverse reactions, and type and method of medication were all factors that affected the severity of ADR. The prognosis of SADRs is worse than normal ADRs. The ADRs in autumn and winter and new adverse reactions are unique risk factors found in this study. The elderly and patients with multiple diseases or taking multiple drugs should pay attention to their adverse reactions. They should be closely observed within a week after taking the medicine. The supervision of patients with a history of allergies and new adverse reactions should be strengthened by primary medical institutions, and in nonprimary medical institutions should paid attention with past medical histories, and use imported drugs and biological agents with caution to ensure the safety and health of patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 11338
Ilaria Giannoccaro ◽  
Gaia Ceccarelli ◽  
Luca Fraccascia

The higher education system plays a critical role in supporting the transition towards a circular economy (CE). It helps create business leaders and policymakers having appropriate skills, competences, and consciousness referring to the CE challenges. Nevertheless, few studies have specifically investigated how the higher education system is addressing the CE, how the current academic offering is integrating the CE principles, and which skills and competences are currently provided. This paper overcomes these limitations by investigating the current offering of the higher education for the CE in Italy. We analyze the academic programs, courses, and modules at different levels of 49 Italian universities and, by means of a detailed classification of the learning outcomes, provide a clear picture of the knowledge, skills, and competences offered by the CE education. We finally discuss implications of our findings concerning the development of CE education and CE jobs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (2) ◽  
pp. 11-25
Jolanta Brzykcy

The article is an analysis of the poetry of Gisella Lachman (1895–1969), poet of the “first wave” of Russian emigration, from the perspective of the poetics of space. The poet expressed her emigration experience (multiple changes of residence: Russia, Germany, Switzerland, USA) in her poems in spatial relations. They appear on different levels of the works’ morphology: in the construction of the lyrical “I”, in the organisation of the presented world, in the repertoire of motifs and the selection of poetic lexis and genre forms. Space plays a literal role in Lachman’s poetry; it is a representation of extra-literary reality, seen subjectively. It is also subject to metaphorisation, becoming a tool for expressing philosophical content. The poet creates not only a spatial model of the world, but also a spatial model of human life, which she perceives as a transit on the road to eternity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Luca Di Bianco ◽  
Claude Albore Livadie ◽  
Saverio G. Malatesta

The archaeological complex of the Amalfi Coast represents a sector of great development capacity within an area defined as a UNESCO World Heritage site on the basis of the typical stratified cultural landscape. The project presented in this report acts in a specific field of archaeology, prehistoric and protohistoric, of which there are many examples in the Amalfi Coast, even if they are not always clearly legible, and focuses on the analysis of old data, on the acquisition of new information and on their processing through an open-source GIS database. The project seeks results on two different levels: the purely scientific and the more sociocultural.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Amare Tiruneh Adugna

Abstract Recently, the concentration of emerging contaminants is increasing in drinking water sources, industrial wastewater, and reclaimed water. It is not possible to remove the emerging contaminants using conventional methods, and the interest to use nanomembrane-based filtration is getting attention. A nanomembrane-based filtration can be manipulated without the use of any special equipment. Different research findings reported better removal of emerging contaminants has been achieved using nanomembrane-based filtration. Moreover, new developments have been examined and implemented at different levels and are expected to continue. Therefore, this chapter provides a brief overview of recent developments on nanomembrane-based filtration processes in the removal of emerging contaminants from drinking water sources, industrial wastewater, and reclaimed water.

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