Process Theory
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2022 ◽  
Vol 142 ◽  
pp. 104559
J.G. Gutiérrez-Ch ◽  
S. Senent ◽  
P. Zeng ◽  
R. Jimenez

Seungjong Cho

AbstractThis study synthesizes the current theoretical knowledge to explain the relationship between neighbourhood stressors and depressive symptoms. The two most relevant sociological theories, social disorganization theory and stress process theory, are identified. The current study carefully reviewed the two theories regarding their historical development and key conceptual aspects, beginning with the theoretical evolution of research on neighbourhood stressors and mental health. This study also provides detailed critiques on each theory and suggests how researchers can apply both theories to their empirical testing. For example, social disorganization theory points out the application of both objective and subjective aspects of neighbourhood stressors. Also, the stress process theory emphasizes the mediating or moderating role of psychosocial resources. In conclusion, this study suggests a conceptual model of neighbourhood stressors, psychosocial resources, and depressive symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-36
Emily Harris ◽  
Lekshmi Santhosh

2022 ◽  
T. S. Stumpf ◽  
Christopher Califf ◽  
Jaime Lancaster

Diametros ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vitaliy Nadurak

The article proposes a consideration of the dual-process theory of higher cognition as a theory of the classification of acts of information processing. One of the reasons why the dual-process approach has been criticized is the fact that the information processing process can sometimes have characteristics that undermine a clear-cut attribution to one of the two traditionally defined opposite types. To avoid this criticism, it is proposed that the object of classification should not be the processes of information processing, but separate acts of combining two units of information. Unlike a process, a particular act of information processing at a particular moment in time cannot simultaneously have opposite characteristics, nor can it simultaneously have and not have some characteristic. In order to show the qualitative difference between various information processing acts as falling individually into either Type 1 or Type 2 processing, it is proposed to classify them by a feature that is present in one type and absent in another. It is suggested to take conscious control as such a feature. As a result, in the information processing acts corresponding to Type 2 category, units of information are combined in a consciously controlled way, whereas in the acts to be considered as Type 1, those units either already are combined or combine autonomously due to the existence of indirect associative connections.

2021 ◽  
Vol 52 (4) ◽  
pp. 76-77
Ezio Bartocci ◽  
Michael A. Bender

With the publication of the Kannellakis-Smolka 1983 PODC paper, Kanellakis and Smolka pioneered the development of efficient algorithms for deciding behavioral equivalence of concurrent and distributed processes, especially bisimulation equivalence. Bisimulation is the cornerstone of the process-algebraic approach to modeling and verifying concurrent and distributed systems. They also presented complexity results that showed certain behavioral equivalences are computationally intractable. Collectively, their results founded the subdiscipline of algorithmic process theory, and established the associated bridges between the European research community, whose focus at the time was on process theory, and that of the US, with a rich tradition in algorithm design and computational complexity, but to whom process theory was largely unknown.

2021 ◽  
Delia Baskerville

<p>Truancy is a longstanding, unresolved educational issue in countries where there are compulsory attendance policies. Taking time out from class without permission is illegal and negatively influences future functioning for students who truant in regards to employment, family and community. Truancy represents a long-term cost to society in expenditure on health, well-being and incarceration.  Previous research has focused on key demographic variables related to truancy, causal factors, and a variety of viewpoints. However, there has been a paucity of evidence about truancy from student perspectives. Therefore, the purpose of this research was twofold; (1) to investigate how secondary school students who truant constructed meaning about their experiences, and (2) to develop a substantive theory that identified how participants constructed the processes involved in truanting. This thesis used a grounded theory approach, concurrently gathering and analysing data generated through interviews with 13 young people from three schools and an activity centre.  Students in the study referred to truanting as wagging. In respect of this, the study presents a process theory of wagging which identifies four stages: Wagging-in-class; leaving; awakening, and reincluding. The study contributes to truancy scholarship in several ways, which include the experiences and challenges occurring in class and in their personal lives that contribute to youth truanting; how youth reposition themselves when they truant; the nature of their interactions and the group they truant with; what causes them to realise there is no future value in truanting; the conditions that support them to reintegrate in class after truanting; and why they are able to return and attend school regularly after truanting.  Further findings indicate that teacher intentional behaviours and student willingness to change are necessary to support the further development of inclusive practices in schools required to address truancy. The recommendations made for school leaders, teachers, counsellors, teacher educators and policy makers include four suggestions: (1) building teacher-student rapport, links with whānau, and school connectedness; (2) more proactive, sustained and consistent monitoring of student attendance; (3) reviewing school systems to foster inclusiveness and student attendance; and (4) providing a strong focus on inclusiveness within teacher education and professional development programmes. Future research and development opportunities are also identified, for example, the design of an ethnodrama to disseminate the results of this study and to heighten awareness of the dangers of wagging to students and the community. The intention is also to research the audience reactions and responses to the ethnodrama. This thesis also draws attention to the need for further studies to replicate the design features of the present study in other contexts so as to confirm, modify, extend or challenge the process theory of wagging that has emerged from this research.</p>

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