Depressive Symptoms
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yimin Cui ◽  
Chunsu Zhu ◽  
Zhiwei Lian ◽  
Xueyan Han ◽  
Qian Xiang ◽  

Abstract Background This study aimed to assess the association between baseline symptoms and changes in depressive symptoms and stroke incidents. Methods We used data from the Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in 2013, 2015, and 2018. In total, 10,100 individuals aged ≥45 years and without a history of stroke in 2013 were included. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studied Depression scale (elevated depressive symptoms cutoff ≥10). Changes of depressive symptoms were assessed by two successive surveys (stable low/no, recent onset, recently remitted, and stable high depressive symptoms). We assessed whether baseline depressive symptoms and changes of them were associated with stroke incidents reported through 2018. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, education, marital status and other potential confounders were performed. Results For the analysis of baseline depressive symptoms and stroke (n = 10,100), 545 (5.4%) reported stroke incidents in the following 5-year period. Individuals with elevated depressive symptoms in 2013 experienced a markedly higher stroke risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28–1.84) compared with those without elevated depressive symptoms. In the analysis of changes in depressive symptoms (n = 8491, 430 (5.1%) stroke events), participants with stable high (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.58–2.56) and recent-onset (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.04–1.85) depressive symptoms presented higher stroke risk compared to those with stable low/no depressive symptoms, while recently remitted symptoms (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.80–1.57) were not associated with stroke risk. Conclusions In conclusion, stable high and newly started depressive symptoms were associated with increased stroke risk, whereas the improvement of depressive symptoms was not related to increase in stroke risk, suggesting that stroke risk may be decreased by effective management of depressive symptoms.

2021 ◽  
Felicia Kamp ◽  
Nina Behle ◽  
Lisa Proebstl ◽  
Laura Hager ◽  
Marlies Riebschläger ◽  

Abstract Background: There is an increasing demand of treatment options for methamphetamine users. The present study evaluates differences between methamphetamine users and users of other substances with respect to cognitive function and psychopathology and possible correlates of treatment outcome. Method: 110 subjects were recruited for an observational longitudinal study from a German inpatient addiction treatment center: 55 patients with methamphetamine dependence and 55 patients with dependence of other substances (OS group). Groups were examined at beginning (baseline) and end of treatment (after six months) with regard to treatment retention, craving, cognitive functioning, psychosocial resources, personality traits, and psychiatric symptoms. Results: A total drop-out rate of 40% was observed without significant differences. At baseline, Methamphetamine-group subjects had significantly lower intelligence quotient, less years of education, poorer working speed and lower working accuracy and cannabinoid and cocaine use compared to OS-group. Methamphetamine-group subjects showed a significantly lower score of conscientiousness, psychiatric symptoms than subjects from the OS-group. Both groups showed a reduction of craving and depressive symptoms and an improvement of working speed and working accuracy after treatment. Conclusions: There are differences between methamphetamine users and users of other drugs, but not with regard to the effectiveness of treatment in this inpatient setting.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Therese Torgersen Bigseth ◽  
John Abel Engh ◽  
Jens Egeland ◽  
Eivind Andersen ◽  
Ole Andreas Andreassen ◽  

Abstract Background There is evidence of increased low grade inflammation (LGI) in schizophrenia patients. However, the inter-individual variation is large and the association with demographic, somatic and psychiatric factors remains unclear. Our aim was to explore whether levels of the novel LGI marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) were associated with clinical factors in schizophrenia and if such associations were sex-dependent. Method In this observational study a total of 187 participants with schizophrenia (108 males, 79 females) underwent physical examination and assessment with clinical interviews (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT)). Blood levels of suPAR, glucose, lipids, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were determined and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used adjusting for confounders, and sex interaction tested in significant variables. Results Adjusting for sex, age, current tobacco smoking and BMI, we found that levels of hsCRP and depressive symptoms (CDSS) were positively associated with levels of suPAR (p < 0.001). The association between suPAR and CDSS score was significant in females (p < 0.001) but not in males. Immune activation measured by hsCRP was not associated with depressive symptoms after adjusting for BMI. Conclusion Our findings indicate that increased suPAR levels are associated with depressive symptoms in females with schizophrenia, suggesting aberrant immune activation in this subgroup. Our results warrant further studies, including longitudinal follow-up of suPAR levels in schizophrenia and experimental studies of mechanisms.

2021 ◽  
Roy H Perlis ◽  
Jon Green ◽  
Matthew Simonson ◽  
Katherine Ognyanova ◽  
Mauricio Santillana ◽  

Importance: Some studies suggest that social media use is associated with risk for depression, particularly among children and young adults. Objective: To characterize the association between self-reported use of individual social media platforms, and worsening of depressive symptoms, among adults. Design: We included data from 13 waves of a non-probability internet survey conducted between May 2020 and May 2021 among individuals age 18 and older in the United States. We applied logistic regression with 5 or more point increase in PHQ-9 as outcome, and sociodemographic features, baseline PHQ-9, and use of each social media platform as independent variables, without reweighting. Participants: Survey respondents 18 and older. Main Outcome and Measure: PHQ-9 worsening by 5 points or more. Results: A total of 5395/8045 (67.1%) individuals with a PHQ-9<5 on initial survey completed a second PHQ-9. These respondents had mean age 55.82 years (SD 15.17); 3546 (65.7%) reported female gender, the remainder male; 329 (6.1%) were Asian, 570 (10.6%) Black, 256 (4.7%) Hispanic, 4118 (76.3%) White, and 122 (2.3%) Native American or Alaska Native, Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian, or Other. Among them, 482 (8.9%) reported 5 point or greater worsening at second survey. In fully-adjusted models for increase in symptoms, largest odds ratio associated with social media use was observed for Snapchat (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.19-1.96), Facebook (aOR 1.42, 1.10-1.81), and TikTok (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03-1.87). Conclusions and Relevance: Among survey respondents who did not report depressive symptoms initially, social media use was associated with greater likelihood of subsequent increase in depressive symptoms after adjustment for sociodemographic features and news sources. These data cannot elucidate the nature of this relationship, but suggest the need for further study to understand the impact of social media use.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yavor Yalachkov ◽  
Victoria Anschuetz ◽  
Jasmin Jakob ◽  
Martin A. Schaller-Paule ◽  
Jan Hendrik Schaefer ◽  

Background: Inflammation is essential for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). While the immune system contribution to the development of neurological symptoms has been intensively studied, inflammatory biomarkers for mental symptoms such as depression are poorly understood in the context of MS. Here, we test if depression correlates with peripheral and central inflammation markers in MS patients as soon as the diagnosis is established.Methods: Forty-four patients were newly diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS, primary progressive MS or clinically isolated syndrome. Age, gender, EDSS, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, white blood cells count in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF WBC), presence of gadolinium enhanced lesions (GE) on T1-weighted images and total number of typical MS lesion locations were included in linear regression models to predict Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score and the depression dimension of the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL90RD).Results: CRP elevation and GE predicted significantly BDI (CRP: p = 0.007; GE: p = 0.019) and SCL90RD (CRP: p = 0.004; GE: p = 0.049). The combination of both factors resulted in more pronounced depressive symptoms (p = 0.04). CSF WBC and EDSS as well as the other variables were not correlated with depressive symptoms.Conclusions: CRP elevation and GE are associated with depressive symptoms in newly diagnosed MS patients. These markers can be used to identify MS patients exhibiting a high risk for the development of depressive symptoms in early phases of the disease.

Menopause ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Carrie A. Karvonen-Gutierrez ◽  
Navasuja Kumar ◽  
Michelle M. Hood ◽  
David C. Musch ◽  
Sioban Harlow ◽  

Xueyin Wang ◽  
Jiangli Di ◽  
Gengli Zhao ◽  
Linhong Wang ◽  
Xiaosong Zhang

Depression has become a major mental health concern among adolescents globally, and the relationship between depressive symptoms and nighttime sleep duration among adolescent girls remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between nighttime sleep duration and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescent girls. This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2018, included 4952 girls aged 10–19 years from the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and categorized into depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of depressive symptoms. After adjustment for covariates, adolescent girls with a nighttime sleep duration of <7 h/night (OR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.76–2.95) and 7 h/night (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.48–2.24) were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms, compared to those with a sleep duration of 8 h/night. An interaction between nighttime sleep duration and regular physical activity on the risk of depressive symptoms was observed (p for interaction = 0.036). Among both girls with and without regular physical activity, a sleep duration of <7 h/night was associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms, and the magnitude of the ORs among girls with regular physical activity was lower than those without regular physical activity. This study found a significant association of short nighttime sleep duration with increased risk of depressive symptoms, and demonstrates the importance of maintaining adequate nighttime sleep duration and ensuring regular physical activity in improving depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

2021 ◽  
pp. 216770262110493
Olutosin Adesogan ◽  
Justin A. Lavner ◽  
Sierra E. Carter ◽  
Steven R. H. Beach

Black Americans have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. To better understand changes in and predictors of their mental and physical health, in the current study, we used three waves of data (two prepandemic and a third during summer 2020) from 329 Black men and women in the rural South. Results indicated that health worsened after the onset of the pandemic, including increased depressive symptoms and sleep problems and decreased self-reported general health. Greater exposure to COVID-19-related stressors was significantly associated with poorer health. Prepandemic stressors (financial strain, racial discrimination, chronic stress) and prepandemic resources (marital quality, general support from family and friends) were significantly associated with exposure to COVID-19-related stressors and with health during the pandemic. Findings underscore how the pandemic posed the greatest threats to Black Americans with more prepandemic psychosocial risks and highlight the need for multifaceted interventions that address current and historical stressors among this population.

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