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2022 ◽  
Vol 65 ◽  
pp. 102876
Author(s):  
Jano Jiménez-Barreto ◽  
Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro ◽  
Natalia Rubio ◽  
Jaime Romero

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Author(s):  
Yashar Moshfeghi ◽  
Alvaro Francisco Huertas-Rosero

In this article, we propose an approach to improve quality in crowdsourcing (CS) tasks using Task Completion Time (TCT) as a source of information about the reliability of workers in a game-theoretical competitive scenario. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that some workers are more risk-inclined and tend to gamble with their use of time when put to compete with other workers. This hypothesis is supported by our previous simulation study. We test our approach with 35 topics from experiments on the TREC-8 collection being assessed as relevant or non-relevant by crowdsourced workers both in a competitive (referred to as “Game”) and non-competitive (referred to as “Base”) scenario. We find that competition changes the distributions of TCT, making them sensitive to the quality (i.e., wrong or right) and outcome (i.e., relevant or non-relevant) of the assessments. We also test an optimal function of TCT as weights in a weighted majority voting scheme. From probabilistic considerations, we derive a theoretical upper bound for the weighted majority performance of cohorts of 2, 3, 4, and 5 workers, which we use as a criterion to evaluate the performance of our weighting scheme. We find our approach achieves a remarkable performance, significantly closing the gap between the accuracy of the obtained relevance judgements and the upper bound. Since our approach takes advantage of TCT, which is an available quantity in any CS tasks, we believe it is cost-effective and, therefore, can be applied for quality assurance in crowdsourcing for micro-tasks.


Author(s):  
Teresa Penbrooke ◽  
Michael Edwards ◽  
Jason Bocarro ◽  
Karla Henderson ◽  
J. Aaron Hipp

Within the United States parks and recreation agencies (P&R) manage public facilities, spaces, lands, and recreation programs. Public health (PH) evidence has increasingly pointed to local public P&R agencies as critical for promoting preventive health. Programs and strategies are available, but most P&R agencies have limited resources and lack local knowledge on which to base actions. However, the research base is growing. The global research question has shifted from asking IF P&R agencies can positively affect PH factors, to HOW they can best do so with limited resources.This research adapted a systems theory approach to how local public P&R agencies are addressing health factors. Methods included a literature review along with iterative exploration through a three-stage Delphi panel study with 17 P&R agency Expert Panelists in the U.S and Canada. Panelists were identified through a waterfall selection process. Each had at least three years of senior administration experience with interest in addressing PH factors.The study explored which preventive factors appear to be most modifiable by P&R. Results indicated increased physical activity, improved nutrition, enhanced safety or perception of safety, increased social and parental engagement, improved transportation and access to locations (especially nature), and cessation or reduced overconsumption of tobacco and alcohol. However, the priority of factors varies by community, and the continuing challenge is determining the priority of the factors for agencies and their partners to address. Community-specific data are not typically readily available to P&R agencies. Programs, strategies, internal methods, policies, and documents utilized by agencies were collected. Thirty-one related national initiatives (programs) were identified and ranked by the panelists.Key common strategies for P&R were identified. Results indicated a need to focus strategies on leadership and adequate funding to create a strong organizational culture of systematic assessment for addressing PH through allocation of P&R staff and financial resources. Systems thinking analysis and strategies can improve outcomes for cultural ethics of inclusion and equity, equitable access to assets and programs, collaboration with other partners, utilization of crime prevention and environmental design strategies, increased health promotions and education, and centralized tracking and evaluation of feasible measures.Implications for research include needs for additional validation and dissemination of research, evidence-based tools, and proven methods. There continues to be a strong need to help address gaps in knowledge transfer between research and practice realms. Management implications suggest methods for practice to enhance systems-thinking approaches for better preventive health outcomes through P&R in communities.


2022 ◽  
pp. 003288552110693
Author(s):  
Meta Lavrič ◽  
Nuša Zadravec Šedivy ◽  
Vita Poštuvan

As first responders in prisons, correctional officers are more exposed to suicides than the general population. The aim of the study was to explore how they experience the suicidal behavior of inmates and how they cope with potential psychological consequences of these experiences. We conducted interviews with 11 male correctional officers working in 12-h shifts, and analysed the data using a grounded theory approach. Results were conceptualised in The Model of a House, which consists of five parts representing different aspects of the experience. The model provides an overall understanding of how correctional officers experience the suicidal behavior of inmates.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
. Wahyutama

<p>Some studies theorized social media as fostering youth political participation by facilitating the development of online participatory cultures (Jenkins, 2009). Online participatory cultures provide young citizens with opportunities to discuss and gain information about political topics, create capacity for action by promoting digital skills and norms for group interaction, and facilitate recruitment into civic and political life (Kahne et al., 2013). Against the backdrop of this discourse, this research aims to investigate social media and youth political participation in Indonesia’s context.  This project’s research questions ask: How politics is experienced by Indonesian youth and how social media is used by them to engage with political activities? To answer those questions, this research conducted a survey (n=265) and interviews (n=29) with students from three universities in Jakarta. This research adopted grounded theory approach in analysing the data.  This research revealed that social media in general provides affordances for youth to engage with activities related to political conversation and social-political campaign (as indicated by the findings that social media attracts more numbers of youth participating in these two categories of activity). Thus, this research in part support propositions advocated by the thesis of online participatory cultures that social media facilitates youth political participation.  However, under the specific context of ethnic and religious-based political polarization which happened during this research, this research also revealed that the salient form of social media use by youth is in fact monitoring political conversation. This activity is driven by the sense of “kepo” (the drive to asses how others are thinking, feeling, and responding to certain political issues) and has the effect on youth’s fear of social isolation (in the form of fear of breaking relationship with others). Eventually, this activity leads youth to the act of silence (in the form of refraining political expression on social media). In this case, this research (unintentionally) confirm the theory of spiral of silence proposed by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann (1984).  Finally, this research contributes to the academic discourse by providing a critical insight into the way social media could lead its users to the process of spiral of silence i.e. by exacerbating the fear of social isolation obtained from the activity of social surveillance (in the form of monitoring political conversation).</p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
. Wahyutama

<p>Some studies theorized social media as fostering youth political participation by facilitating the development of online participatory cultures (Jenkins, 2009). Online participatory cultures provide young citizens with opportunities to discuss and gain information about political topics, create capacity for action by promoting digital skills and norms for group interaction, and facilitate recruitment into civic and political life (Kahne et al., 2013). Against the backdrop of this discourse, this research aims to investigate social media and youth political participation in Indonesia’s context.  This project’s research questions ask: How politics is experienced by Indonesian youth and how social media is used by them to engage with political activities? To answer those questions, this research conducted a survey (n=265) and interviews (n=29) with students from three universities in Jakarta. This research adopted grounded theory approach in analysing the data.  This research revealed that social media in general provides affordances for youth to engage with activities related to political conversation and social-political campaign (as indicated by the findings that social media attracts more numbers of youth participating in these two categories of activity). Thus, this research in part support propositions advocated by the thesis of online participatory cultures that social media facilitates youth political participation.  However, under the specific context of ethnic and religious-based political polarization which happened during this research, this research also revealed that the salient form of social media use by youth is in fact monitoring political conversation. This activity is driven by the sense of “kepo” (the drive to asses how others are thinking, feeling, and responding to certain political issues) and has the effect on youth’s fear of social isolation (in the form of fear of breaking relationship with others). Eventually, this activity leads youth to the act of silence (in the form of refraining political expression on social media). In this case, this research (unintentionally) confirm the theory of spiral of silence proposed by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann (1984).  Finally, this research contributes to the academic discourse by providing a critical insight into the way social media could lead its users to the process of spiral of silence i.e. by exacerbating the fear of social isolation obtained from the activity of social surveillance (in the form of monitoring political conversation).</p>


Author(s):  
I. Maslennikov

The problem that is described in the article has become one of the most crucial and important during first pandemic months of 2020. All new working conditions were a tough challenge for companies that should change all their process to keep the business alive. But even in that crisis times companies have to hire the new personnel and especially crucial not only hire but to adapt people to work both in new company and new remote or partly remote conditions. In this article the manager’s adaptation and involvement management process is reviewed from the point of view of restricted communication methods. The implementation of project management theory approach is described as a tool that could improve and secure the adaptation aspect of human resource management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Ying Liu ◽  
Sheng-Yuan Wang ◽  
Xiao-Lan Wu ◽  
Jing Liang

How entrepreneurial firms can enhance the level of exploratory and exploitative improvisation in a balanced manner to enhance organizational dynamics has become an important research topic. Current research on the triggers of duality entrepreneurial improvisation has just started, exploring mainly abstract characteristic variables, and has not paid attention to the impact of entrepreneurs’ daily behaviors. In order to make up for the shortcomings of current research, the research goal of this paper is to construct a triggering model of entrepreneurs’ improvisation based on the research of entrepreneurs’ daily behaviors and then to evaluate the influence of the improvisational behavior trigger patterns. Based on the paradoxical and theoretical perspective of duality, a structured observation method is used to explore which behavioral patterns of entrepreneurs tend to trigger dual improvisational behaviors in themselves, their teams, and their organizations. After observing and recording the creators and collecting phenomenal data, six entrepreneurial behavior patterns containing 39 specific operational behaviors have been extracted from the phenomenal data by drawing on the rooted theory approach. In addition, the influence of entrepreneurial patterns is evaluated and ranked using the pairwise hesitant fuzzy set evaluation method. This study reveals the relationship between entrepreneurs’ daily behaviors and dyadic entrepreneurial improvisation at the operational level and provides guiding plans for entrepreneurs to improve their own and their organizations’ improvisation levels.


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