finite state
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-22
João Paulo Cardoso de Lima ◽  
Marcelo Brandalero ◽  
Michael Hübner ◽  
Luigi Carro

Accelerating finite-state automata benefits several emerging application domains that are built on pattern matching. In-memory architectures, such as the Automata Processor (AP), are efficient to speed them up, at least for outperforming traditional von-Neumann architectures. In spite of the AP’s massive parallelism, current APs suffer from poor memory density, inefficient routing architectures, and limited capabilities. Although these limitations can be lessened by emerging memory technologies, its architecture is still the major source of huge communication demands and lack of scalability. To address these issues, we present STAP , a Scalable TCAM-based architecture for Automata Processing . STAP adopts a reconfigurable array of processing elements, which are based on memristive Ternary CAMs (TCAMs), to efficiently implement Non-deterministic finite automata (NFAs) through proper encoding and mapping methods. The CAD tool for STAP integrates the design flow of automata applications, a specific mapping algorithm, and place and route tools for connecting processing elements by RRAM-based programmable interconnects. Results showed 1.47× higher throughput when processing 16-bit input symbols, and improvements of 3.9× and 25× on state and routing densities over the state-of-the-art AP, while preserving 10 4 programming cycles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (POPL) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Taolue Chen ◽  
Alejandro Flores-Lamas ◽  
Matthew Hague ◽  
Zhilei Han ◽  
Denghang Hu ◽  

Regular expressions are a classical concept in formal language theory. Regular expressions in programming languages (RegEx) such as JavaScript, feature non-standard semantics of operators (e.g. greedy/lazy Kleene star), as well as additional features such as capturing groups and references. While symbolic execution of programs containing RegExes appeals to string solvers natively supporting important features of RegEx, such a string solver is hitherto missing. In this paper, we propose the first string theory and string solver that natively provides such support. The key idea of our string solver is to introduce a new automata model, called prioritized streaming string transducers (PSST), to formalize the semantics of RegEx-dependent string functions. PSSTs combine priorities, which have previously been introduced in prioritized finite-state automata to capture greedy/lazy semantics, with string variables as in streaming string transducers to model capturing groups. We validate the consistency of the formal semantics with the actual JavaScript semantics by extensive experiments. Furthermore, to solve the string constraints, we show that PSSTs enjoy nice closure and algorithmic properties, in particular, the regularity-preserving property (i.e., pre-images of regular constraints under PSSTs are regular), and introduce a sound sequent calculus that exploits these properties and performs propagation of regular constraints by means of taking post-images or pre-images. Although the satisfiability of the string constraint language is generally undecidable, we show that our approach is complete for the so-called straight-line fragment. We evaluate the performance of our string solver on over 195000 string constraints generated from an open-source RegEx library. The experimental results show the efficacy of our approach, drastically improving the existing methods (via symbolic execution) in both precision and efficiency.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 251
Virginia Giorno ◽  
Amelia G. Nobile

We consider a time-inhomogeneous Markov chain with a finite state-space which models a system in which failures and repairs can occur at random time instants. The system starts from any state j (operating, F, R). Due to a failure, a transition from an operating state to F occurs after which a repair is required, so that a transition leads to the state R. Subsequently, there is a restore phase, after which the system restarts from one of the operating states. In particular, we assume that the intensity functions of failures, repairs and restores are proportional and that the birth-death process that models the system is a time-inhomogeneous Prendiville process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 ◽  
pp. 173-208
Rodrigo Toro Icarte ◽  
Toryn Q. Klassen ◽  
Richard Valenzano ◽  
Sheila A. McIlraith

Reinforcement learning (RL) methods usually treat reward functions as black boxes. As such, these methods must extensively interact with the environment in order to discover rewards and optimal policies. In most RL applications, however, users have to program the reward function and, hence, there is the opportunity to make the reward function visible – to show the reward function’s code to the RL agent so it can exploit the function’s internal structure to learn optimal policies in a more sample efficient manner. In this paper, we show how to accomplish this idea in two steps. First, we propose reward machines, a type of finite state machine that supports the specification of reward functions while exposing reward function structure. We then describe different methodologies to exploit this structure to support learning, including automated reward shaping, task decomposition, and counterfactual reasoning with off-policy learning. Experiments on tabular and continuous domains, across different tasks and RL agents, show the benefits of exploiting reward structure with respect to sample efficiency and the quality of resultant policies. Finally, by virtue of being a form of finite state machine, reward machines have the expressive power of a regular language and as such support loops, sequences and conditionals, as well as the expression of temporally extended properties typical of linear temporal logic and non-Markovian reward specification.

Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 90
Sarah E. Marzen ◽  
James P. Crutchfield

Reservoir computers (RCs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) can mimic any finite-state automaton in theory, and some workers demonstrated that this can hold in practice. We test the capability of generalized linear models, RCs, and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) RNN architectures to predict the stochastic processes generated by a large suite of probabilistic deterministic finite-state automata (PDFA) in the small-data limit according to two metrics: predictive accuracy and distance to a predictive rate-distortion curve. The latter provides a sense of whether or not the RNN is a lossy predictive feature extractor in the information-theoretic sense. PDFAs provide an excellent performance benchmark in that they can be systematically enumerated, the randomness and correlation structure of their generated processes are exactly known, and their optimal memory-limited predictors are easily computed. With less data than is needed to make a good prediction, LSTMs surprisingly lose at predictive accuracy, but win at lossy predictive feature extraction. These results highlight the utility of causal states in understanding the capabilities of RNNs to predict.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 325
Andrea Vaclavova ◽  
Peter Strelec ◽  
Tibor Horak ◽  
Michal Kebisek ◽  
Pavol Tanuska ◽  

Today, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) devices are very often used to collect manufacturing process data. The integration of industrial data is increasingly being promoted by the Open Platform Communications United Architecture (OPC UA). However, available IIoT devices are limited by the features they provide; therefore, we decided to design an IIoT device taking advantage of the benefits arising from OPC UA. The design procedure was based on the creation of sequences of steps resulting in a workflow that was transformed into a finite state machine (FSM) model. The FSM model was transformed into an OPC UA object, which was implemented in the proposed IIoT. The OPC UA object makes it possible to monitor events and provide important information based on a client’s criteria. The result was the design and implementation of an IIoT device that provides improved monitoring and data acquisition, enabling improved control of the manufacturing process.

Rupsa Saha ◽  
Ole-Christoffer Granmo ◽  
Vladimir I. Zadorozhny ◽  
Morten Goodwin

AbstractTsetlin machines (TMs) are a pattern recognition approach that uses finite state machines for learning and propositional logic to represent patterns. In addition to being natively interpretable, they have provided competitive accuracy for various tasks. In this paper, we increase the computing power of TMs by proposing a first-order logic-based framework with Herbrand semantics. The resulting TM is relational and can take advantage of logical structures appearing in natural language, to learn rules that represent how actions and consequences are related in the real world. The outcome is a logic program of Horn clauses, bringing in a structured view of unstructured data. In closed-domain question-answering, the first-order representation produces 10 × more compact KBs, along with an increase in answering accuracy from 94.83% to 99.48%. The approach is further robust towards erroneous, missing, and superfluous information, distilling the aspects of a text that are important for real-world understanding

2022 ◽  
Vol 2161 (1) ◽  
pp. 012052
Akshatha Kamath ◽  
Tanya Mendez ◽  
S Ramya ◽  
Subramanya G Nayak

Abstract The remarkable innovations in technology are driven mainly by the high-speed data communication requirements of the modern generation. The Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) is one of the most sought-after communication protocols. This work mainly focuses on implementing and analysing the UART for data communication. The Finite State Machine (FSM) implements the baud rate generator, transmitter, and receiver modules. Cadence NCSIM was utilized for simulation, and Cadence RTL Compiler was used during synthesis using the 45 nm and 90 nm General Process Design Kit (GPDK) library files. The baud rate of 9600 bps and 50 MHz clock frequency was used to design UART. The increased speed and complexity of the VLSI chip designs has resulted in a significant increase in power consumption. The comparative analysis of power and delay for different clock periods shows an improvement in the total power and the Power Delay Product (PDP) with increasing clock periods. Better results were observed using 45 nm in comparison to the 90 nm library.

Alexander Aurell ◽  
René Carmona ◽  
Gökçe Dayanıklı ◽  
Mathieu Laurière

AbstractWe consider a game for a continuum of non-identical players evolving on a finite state space. Their heterogeneous interactions are represented with a graphon, which can be viewed as the limit of a dense random graph. A player’s transition rates between the states depend on their control and the strength of interaction with the other players. We develop a rigorous mathematical framework for the game and analyze Nash equilibria. We provide a sufficient condition for a Nash equilibrium and prove existence of solutions to a continuum of fully coupled forward-backward ordinary differential equations characterizing Nash equilibria. Moreover, we propose a numerical approach based on machine learning methods and we present experimental results on different applications to compartmental models in epidemiology.

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