graft versus host disease
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Brittany Paige DePriest ◽  
Hong Li ◽  
Alan Bidgoli ◽  
Lynn Onstad ◽  
Daniel R. Couriel ◽  

Prognostic biomarkers used to identify likelihood of disease progression have not been identified for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), the leading cause of late non-relapse mortality (NRM) in survivors of allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Gastrointestinal cGVHD (GI-cGVHD) has been particularly challenging to classify. Here, we analyzed three proteomics markers [Regenerating-islet-derived-3-alpha (Reg3α), C-X-C-motif-ligand (CXCL9) and Stimulation-2 (ST2)] in two independent cohorts of patients with cGVHD totaling 289 patients. Plasma concentrations of Reg3α were significantly increased in patients with GI-cGVHD compared to those without (p=0.0012, p=0.01 respectively), CXCL9 and ST2 were not. Patients with high Reg3α (≥72ng/mL) vs. low Reg3α had higher NRM (23% vs. 11%, p=0.015). Since Reg3α has been identified as a lower GI-tract marker in acute GVHD, we correlated Reg3α with lower acute-like GI-cGVHD vs. classical fibrotic-like esophageal manifestations and found Reg3a did not differ between the subtypes. No difference was observed between upper and lower subtypes. Patients with extremely high Reg3α (≥180 ng/mL) had higher GI-scores but not higher lower-GI-scores. In multivariate Cox regression model, patients with high Reg3α were 1.9 times more likely to die without relapse. Our findings demonstrate the utility of Reg3α as a prognostic marker for GI-cGVHD. These data warrant prospective biomarker validation studies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106002802110681
Rémi Tilmont ◽  
Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha ◽  
Nassima Ramdane ◽  
Micha Srour ◽  
Valérie Coiteux ◽  

Background Defibrotide is indicated for patients who develop severe sinusoidal obstructive syndrome following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Preclinical data suggested that defibrotide carries a prophylactic effect against acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of defibrotide on the incidence and severity of aGVHD. Methods This single-center retrospective study included all consecutive transplanted patients between January 2014 and December 2018. A propensity score based on 10 predefined confounders was used to estimate the effect of defibrotide on aGVHD via inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Results Of the 482 included patients, 64 received defibrotide (defibrotide group) and 418 did not (control group). Regarding main patient characteristics and transplantation modalities, the two groups were comparable, except for a predominance of men in the defibrotide group. The median age was 55 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 40-62). Patients received allo-HCT from HLA-matched related donor (28.6%), HLA-matched unrelated donor (50.8%), haplo-identical donor (13.4%), or mismatched unrelated donor (7.0%). Stem cell source was either bone marrow (49.6%) or peripheral blood (50.4%). After using IPTW, exposure to defibrotide was not significantly associated with occurrence of aGVHD (HR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.62-1.52; P = .9) or occurrence of severe aGVHD (HR = 1.89, 95% CI: 0.98-3.66; P = .058). Conclusion and Relevance Defibrotide does not seem to have a protective effect on aGVHD in patients undergoing allo-HCT. Based on what has been reported to date and on these results, defibrotide should not be considered for the prevention of aGVHD outside clinical trials.

Andrew D. Trunk ◽  
Samuel K. Shewan ◽  
Catherine J. Lee ◽  
Charles J. Parker ◽  
Daniel R. Couriel

Marie Bleakley ◽  
Alison Sehgal ◽  
Stuart Seropian ◽  
Melinda A. Biernacki ◽  
Elizabeth F. Krakow ◽  

PURPOSE Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) causes morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Naive T cells (TN) cause severe GVHD in murine models. We evaluated chronic GVHD (cGVHD) and other outcomes in three phase II clinical trials of TN-depletion of peripheral blood stem-cell (PBSC) grafts. METHODS One hundred thirty-eight patients with acute leukemia received TN-depleted PBSC from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors following conditioning with high- or intermediate-dose total-body irradiation and chemotherapy. GVHD prophylaxis was with tacrolimus, with or without methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil. Subjects received CD34-selected PBSC and a defined dose of memory T cells depleted of TN. Median follow-up was 4 years. The primary outcome of the analysis of cumulative data from the three trials was cGVHD. RESULTS cGVHD was very infrequent and mild (3-year cumulative incidence total, 7% [95% CI, 2 to 11]; moderate, 1% [95% CI, 0 to 2]; severe, 0%). Grade III and IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) occurred in 4% (95% CI, 1 to 8) and 0%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade II aGVHD, which was mostly stage 1 upper gastrointestinal GVHD, was 71% (95% CI, 64 to 79). Recipients of matched related donor and matched unrelated donor grafts had similar rates of grade III aGVHD (5% [95% CI, 0 to 9] and 4% [95% CI, 0 to 9]) and cGVHD (7% [95% CI, 2 to 13] and 6% [95% CI, 0 to 12]). Overall survival, cGVHD-free, relapse-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality were, respectively, 77% (95% CI, 71 to 85), 68% (95% CI, 61 to 76), 23% (95% CI, 16 to 30), and 8% (95% CI, 3 to 13) at 3 years. CONCLUSION Depletion of TN from PBSC allografts results in very low incidences of severe acute and any cGVHD, without apparent excess risks of relapse or nonrelapse mortality, distinguishing this novel graft engineering strategy from other hematopoietic cell transplantation approaches.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jiao Ma ◽  
Chendi Li ◽  
Yinghan Zhao ◽  
Zhan Shen ◽  
Bohao Hu ◽  

Abstract Purpose To determine the role tear lymphotoxin-α (LT-α) in chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). Methods Twenty-two chronic oGVHD and 17 control tear samples were collected, and commercial test strips were used to detect LT-α concentrations. Concentration differences between patients with and without oGVHD were determined via Mann-Whitney U test. The correlation between LT-α levels and ophthalmic parameters was analyzed using Spearman’s test. Results The concentration of LT-α was significantly lower in oGVHD patients than in controls. LT-α levels were significantly correlated with OSDI, NIH eye score, T-BUT, and CFS among all participants. ROC analysis revealed that the area under the curve of LT-α was 0.847, and the cutoff value for chronic oGVHD diagnosis was 0.203 ng/mL. Conclusion Our study revealed the significant decrease of tear LT-α in oGVHD, and suggested LT-α as a promising marker for chronic oGVHD diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Steven J. Keogh ◽  
Jean-Hugues Dalle ◽  
Rick Admiraal ◽  
Michael A. Pulsipher

Serotherapy comprising agents such as anti-thymocyte globulin, anti-T-lymphocyte globulin, and the anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab is used widely to reduce the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The outcome of transplants using matched unrelated donors now approaches that of matched sibling donors. This is likely due to better disease control in recipients, the use of donors more closely human-leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched to recipients, and more effective graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. The price paid for reduced GvHD is slower immune reconstitution of T cells and thus more infections. This has led to studies looking to optimise the amount of serotherapy used. The balance between prevention of GvHD on one side and prevention of infections and relapse on the other side is quite delicate. Serotherapy is given with chemotherapy-/radiotherapy-based conditioning prior to HSCT. Due to their long half-lives, agents used for serotherapy may be detectable in patients well after graft infusion. This exposes the graft-infused T cells to a lympholytic effect, impacting T-cell recovery. As such, excessive serotherapy dosing may lead to no GvHD but a higher incidence of infections and relapse of leukaemia, while under-dosing may result in a higher chance of serious GvHD as immunity recovers more quickly. Individualised dosing is being developed through studies including retrospective analyses of serotherapy exposure, population pharmacokinetic modelling, therapeutic drug monitoring in certain centres, and the development of dosing models reliant on factors including the patient's peripheral blood lymphocyte count. Early results of “optimal” dosing strategies for serotherapy and conditioning chemotherapy show promise of improved overall survival.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Matthias Wölfl ◽  
Muna Qayed ◽  
Maria Isabel Benitez Carabante ◽  
Tomas Sykora ◽  
Halvard Bonig ◽  

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, higher event-free survival (EFS) was observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and grade II aGvHD vs. patients with no or grade I GvHD in the randomised, controlled, open-label, international, multicentre Phase III For Omitting Radiation Under Majority age (FORUM) trial. This finding suggests that moderate-severity aGvHD is associated with a graft-versus-leukaemia effect which protects against leukaemia recurrence. In order to optimise the benefits of HSCT for leukaemia patients, reduction of non-relapse mortality—which is predominantly caused by severe GvHD—is of utmost importance. Herein, we review contemporary prophylaxis and treatment options for aGvHD in children with ALL and the key challenges of aGvHD management, focusing on maintaining the graft-versus-leukaemia effect without increasing the severity of GvHD.

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