Plasma concentrations of extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from cells involved in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC), their longitudinal trend and association with clinical outcomes were evaluated. Blood samples of consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to a medical Unit were longitudinally collected within 48 h of admission, at discharge and 30 days post-discharge. EVs were analyzed using high sensitivity flow cytometry and phospholipid-dependent clotting time (PPL). The following EVs were measured: endothelium-, platelet-, leukocyte-derived, bearing tissue factor (TF)+, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2)+, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGF-β)+ and SARS-CoV-2-nucleoprotein (NP)+. 91 patients were recruited for baseline EV analysis (mean age 67 ± 14 years, 50.5% male) and 48 underwent the longitudinal evaluation. From baseline to 30-days post-discharge, we observed significantly decreased plasma concentrations of endothelium-derived EVs (E-Selectin+), endothelium-derived bearing TF (E-Selectin+ TF+), endothelium-derived bearing ACE2 (E-Selectin+ACE2+) and leukocyte-EVs bearing TF (CD45+TF+), p < 0.001, p = 0.03, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively. Conversely, platelet-derived (P-Selectin+) and leukocyte-derived EVs (CD45+) increased from baseline to 30-days post-discharge (p = 0.038 and 0.032, respectively). EVs TF+, ACE2+, PDGF-β+, and SARS-CoV-2-NP+ did not significantly change during the monitoring. PPL increased from baseline to 30-days post-discharge (+ 6.3 s, p = 0.006). P-Selectin + EVs >1,054/µL were associated with thrombosis (p = 0.024), E-Selectin + EVs ≤531/µL with worsening/death (p 0.026) and 30-days P-Selectin+ and CD45 + EVs with persistent symptoms (p < 0.0001). We confirmed increased EVs originating from cells involved in CAC at admission and discharge. EVs derived from activated pericytes and expressing SARS-CoV-2-NP were also detected. 30-days post-discharge, endothelium-EVs decreased, while platelet- and leukocyte-EVs further increased, indicating that cellular activation persists long after the acute phase.
It has been estimated that most vegans meet the total protein requirements, but whether this is also true for individual essential amino acids (AAs) is unclear. Furthermore, a shift in protein intake is suggested to alter microbiota composition, but this association is unknown in terms of veganism or individual AAs. This cross-sectional study compared vegans and omnivores regarding dietary intake and plasma concentration of AAs. The prevalence of insufficient intake of essential AAs among vegans was determined using estimated average requirements (EAR) of WHO. Moreover, correlations between AAs intake and gut microbiota were investigated.
Data of 36 vegans and 36 omnivores (30–60 years) were analysed. AA intake, AA plasma concentrations and gut microbiota were ascertained by three-day weighed food protocols, gas/liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively.
At almost the same energy intake, the intake of 9 AAs in vegans was significantly lower than in omnivores, with median differences of − 27.0% to − 51.9%. However, only one female vegan showed total protein and lysine intake below the EAR. Vegans showed lower lysine (− 25.0%), but higher glycine (+ 25.4%) and glutamate (+ 13.1%) plasma concentrations than omnivores. Correlation patterns between AA intake and bacterial microbiota differed between vegans and omnivores. In vegans 19 species and in omnivores 5 species showed correlations with AA intake.
Vegans consumed apparently sufficient but lower AAs than omnivores. In addition, the different AAs intake seems to influence the microbiota composition. The use of short-term dietary data without considering usual intake limits these findings.
Food components have long been recognized to play a fundamental role in the growth and development of the human body, conferring protective functionalities against foreign matter that can be severe public health problems. Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals are essential to the human body, and individuals must meet their daily requirements through dietary sources. Micronutrients act as immunomodulators and protect the host immune response, thus preventing immune evasion by pathogenic organisms. Several experimental investigations have been undertaken to appraise the immunomodulatory functions of vitamins and minerals. Based on these experimental findings, this review describes the immune-boosting functionalities of micronutrients and the mechanisms of action through which these functions are mediated. Deficiencies of vitamins and minerals in plasma concentrations can lead to a reduction in the performance of the immune system functioning, representing a key contributor to unfavorable immunological states. This review provides a descriptive overview of the characteristics of the immune system and the utilization of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in preventative strategies designed to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from immune invasions or autoimmune disorders.
Prognostic biomarkers used to identify likelihood of disease progression have not been identified for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), the leading cause of late non-relapse mortality (NRM) in survivors of allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Gastrointestinal cGVHD (GI-cGVHD) has been particularly challenging to classify. Here, we analyzed three proteomics markers [Regenerating-islet-derived-3-alpha (Reg3α), C-X-C-motif-ligand (CXCL9) and Stimulation-2 (ST2)] in two independent cohorts of patients with cGVHD totaling 289 patients. Plasma concentrations of Reg3α were significantly increased in patients with GI-cGVHD compared to those without (p=0.0012, p=0.01 respectively), CXCL9 and ST2 were not. Patients with high Reg3α (≥72ng/mL) vs. low Reg3α had higher NRM (23% vs. 11%, p=0.015). Since Reg3α has been identified as a lower GI-tract marker in acute GVHD, we correlated Reg3α with lower acute-like GI-cGVHD vs. classical fibrotic-like esophageal manifestations and found Reg3a did not differ between the subtypes. No difference was observed between upper and lower subtypes. Patients with extremely high Reg3α (≥180 ng/mL) had higher GI-scores but not higher lower-GI-scores. In multivariate Cox regression model, patients with high Reg3α were 1.9 times more likely to die without relapse. Our findings demonstrate the utility of Reg3α as a prognostic marker for GI-cGVHD. These data warrant prospective biomarker validation studies.
Purpose: To study the effect of Rhus chinensis Mill. extract (RCME) on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.
Methods: RCME was obtained by extracting the dried Rhus chinensis Mill. in water. Liver cirrhosis rat model was prepared by injecting with DEN once a week for 8 weeks. After 8th-week of RCME treatment, biochemical index and oxidative stress were determined in DEN-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.
Results: Compared with model group, plasma concentrations of alanine transaminase (ALT, 125.3 ± 4.1 U/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, 152.4 ± 3.5 U/L) decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the 8th week. Rhus chinensis Mill. extract (RCME) significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA, 0.18 ± 0.02 umol/L) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 0.76 ± 0.05 U/mg protein) in DEN-induced liver cirrhosis in rats (p < 0.01) when compared with model group.
Conclusion: RCME protects against diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. However, further investigations are required to ascertain the plant extract’s suitability for the clinical management of liver cirrhosis.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobehavioral disorder that is highly prevalent in children and adults. An increasing number of patients with ADHD are self-medicating with cannabis, despite a lack of evidence on efficacy and safety. This case report describes 3 males (ages 18, 22, and 23) who have integrated cannabis into their treatment regimen with positive results. Semistructured interviews conducted with the patients describe subjective improvements in symptoms and on quality of life. Improvements on validated rating scales conducted post-cannabis initiation, compared to pre-cannabis initiation obtained from the medical chart, corroborated their personal accounts. Scores on the PHQ-9 (measuring depression) improved by 8–22 points (30–81%), and the SCARED (measuring anxiety) ranged from 0 to 27 points (up to 33%). Improvements on the CEER-9 scale (measuring regulation) ranged from 2 to 7 points (22–78%), and the 9-item SNAP scale (measuring inattention) showed improvements of 2–8 points (7–30%). Mild adverse events including short-term memory problems, dry mouth, and sleepiness were reported. Blood samples were also collected from the patients to determine the plasma concentrations of the cannabinoids and relevant metabolites before and after a cannabis administration. After cannabis use, the plasma levels for CBD and THC ranged from 0 to 15.29 ng/mL and 1.32 to 13.76 ng/mL, respectively. Cannabinoids, however, were not detected prior to dosing, suggesting that cannabis played a complimentary role in the therapeutic regimen of these 3 patients. Clinical trials are recommended to confirm the efficacy of cannabis in the treatment of ADHD.
To quantify plasma concentrations of prednisolone and dexamethasone (peripheral and jugular) and cortisol following topical ophthalmic application of 1% prednisolone acetate and 0.1% dexamethasone to healthy adult dogs.
12 purpose-bred Beagles.
Dogs received 1 drop of 1% prednisolone acetate (n = 6) or neomycin polymyxin B dexamethasone (ie, 0.1% dexamethasone; 6) ophthalmic suspension in both eyes every 6 hours for 14 days. Blood samples (peripheral and jugular) were collected on days 0, 1, 7, and 14 and analyzed for plasma prednisolone and dexamethasone concentrations. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and following topical drug administration.
Both drugs demonstrated systemic absorption. Prednisolone was detected on days 1, 7, and 14 (median plasma concentration, 24.80 ng/mL; range, 6.20 to 74.00 ng/mL), and dexamethasone was detected on days 1, 7, and 14 (2.30 ng/mL; 0 to 17.70 ng/mL). Neither prednisolone nor dexamethasone were detected in plasma samples on day 0 (baseline). Sampling from the jugular vein resulted in higher plasma drug concentrations than from a peripheral vein when samples from each day were combined. Plasma cortisol concentrations were significantly lower than baseline following 14 days of treatment with topical prednisolone acetate and dexamethasone.
Prednisolone and dexamethasone are detected in the plasma of healthy dogs following topical ophthalmic administration 4 times/d with prednisolone concentrations being close to a physiologic dose of orally administered prednisolone. Additional research is needed to evaluate the systemic absorption of these medications in dogs with ocular inflammation.
To determine the pharmacokinetics and potential adverse effects of pimobendan after oral administration in New Zealand White rabbits (Ocytolagus cuniculi).
10 adult sexually intact (5 males and 5 females) rabbits.
2 pilot studies were performed with a pimobendan suspension or oral tablets. Eight rabbits received 7.5 mg of pimobendan (mean 2.08 mg/kg) suspended in a critical care feeding formula. Plasma concentrations of pimobendan and O-demethylpimobendan (ODMP) were measured, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated for pimobendan by noncompartmental analysis. Body weight, food and water consumption, mentation, urine, and fecal output were monitored.
Mean ± SD maximum concentration following pimobendan administration was 15.7 ± 7.54 ng/mL and was detected at 2.79 ± 1.25 hours. The half-life was 3.54 ± 1.32 hours. Plasma concentrations of pimobendan were detectable for up to 24 hours. The active metabolite, ODMP, was detected in rabbits for 24 to 36 hours. An adverse event occurred following administration of pimobendan in tablet form in 1 pilot study, resulting in death secondary to aspiration. No other adverse events occurred.
Plasma concentrations of pimobendan were lower than previously reported for dogs and cats, despite administration of higher doses, and had longer time to maximum concentration and half-life. Based on this study, 2 mg/kg of pimobendan in a critical care feeding formulation should maintain above a target plasma concentration for 12 to 24 hours. However, further studies evaluating multiple-dose administration as well as pharmacodynamic studies and clinical trials in rabbits with congestive heart failure are needed to determine accurate dose and frequency recommendations.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of salinity and plant-based diet or animal-plant combination diet on the performance and metabolic status of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with four replicates. The treatments were established by the combination of salinities of 0, 10, 20, and 30 g L-1 with an animal-plant combination diet (AP) or plant-based diet (P). The replicates were 60 L tanks with 12 fish per tank. Diets were provided for 32 days, and the fish were fed three times a day (8, 12, and 17 h) until apparent satiety. Daily feed intake (DFI) was measured, body weight (BW) was recorded at the beginning and end of the trial, and total length (TL) and standard length (SL) were measured at the end of the trial. Average daily gain (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival rate were calculated. After the biometric measurements were made at the end of the trial, blood samples were collected to determine the plasma concentrations of total protein (TP), glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG). The fish were euthanized, and the hepatopancreas was collected and weighed; thereafter, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) was calculated. An interaction was detected between salinity and diet type for final BW, ADG, TL, and SL. These traits were not influenced by salinity when it was associated with the AP diet, but reduced linearly with salinity in the P diet. DFI and survival rate were independently affected by salinity: DFI reduced linearly with salinity levels and survival rate was higher at a salinity of 10 g L-1. HSI increased linearly with salinity levels and was lower in the P diet than in the AP diet. Salinity had a quadratic effect on plasma TP, and the maximum value for this metabolite (2.96 g dL-1) is attained at a salinity of 10.26 g L-1. There was an independent effect of diet on the plasma concentrations of cholesterol and TG, which were lower in the P diet than in the AP diet. The salinity of 10 g L-1 associated with diet composed of animal and plant ingredients led to a better performance, higher survival rate, and less stressful environmental conditions for juvenile Nile tilapia.