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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marco Iannetta ◽  
Doriana Landi ◽  
Gaia Cola ◽  
Laura Campogiani ◽  
Vincenzo Malagnino ◽  

BackgroundVaccination campaign to contrast the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised the issue of vaccine immunogenicity in special populations such as people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) on highly effective disease modifying treatments (DMTs). While humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have been well characterized in the general population and in PwMS, very little is known about cell-mediated responses in conferring protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).MethodsPwMS on ocrelizumab, fingolimod or natalizumab, vaccinated with two doses of mRNABNT162b2 (Comirnaty®) vaccine were enrolled. Anti-Spike (S) and anti-Nucleoprotein (N) antibody titers, IFN-gamma production upon S and N peptide libraries stimulation, peripheral blood lymphocyte absolute counts were assessed after at least 1 month and within 4 months from vaccine second dose administration. A group of age and sex matched healthy donors (HD) were included as reference group. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 8.2.1.ResultsThirty PwMS and 9 HDs were enrolled. All the patients were negative for anti-N antibody detection, nor reported previous symptoms of COVID-19. Peripheral blood lymphocyte counts were assessed in PwMS showing: (i) reduction of circulating B-lymphocytes in PwMS on ocrelizumab; (ii) reduction of peripheral blood B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts in PwMS on fingolimod and (iii) normal B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts with an increase in circulating CD16+CD56+ NK-cells in PwMS on natalizumab. Three patterns of immunological responses were identified in PwMS. In patients on ocrelizumab, anti-S antibody were lacking or reduced, while T-cell responses were normal. In patients on fingolimod both anti-S titers and T-cell mediated responses were impaired. In patients on natalizumab both anti-S titers and T-cell responses were present and comparable to those observed in HD.ConclusionsThe evaluation of T-cell responses, anti-S titers and peripheral blood lymphocyte absolute count in PwMS on DMTs can help to better characterize the immunological response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The evaluation of T-cell responses in longitudinal cohorts of PwMS will help to clarify their protective role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. The correlation between DMT treatment and immunological responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines could help to better evaluate vaccination strategies in PwMS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 295-318
Ramón Cantero-Cid ◽  
Karla Marina Montalbán-Hernández ◽  
Jenny Guevara ◽  
Alejandro Pascual-Iglesias ◽  
Elisa Pulido ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Leila Khani ◽  
Mir Hadi Jazayeri ◽  
Reza Nedaeinia ◽  
Mahmood Bozorgmehr ◽  
Seyed Masood Nabavi ◽  

Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica syndrome disease (NMOSD) are inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. The pathogenesis and treatments for these two conditions are very different. Natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells are immune cells with an important role in shaping the immune response. B cells are involved in antigen presentation as well as antibody and cytokine production. There is conflicting evidence of the roles of NK, NKT, and B cells in the two conditions. We aimed to compare the frequency of CD3−CD16+CD56+NK, CD3+ CD56+ NKT, and CD5+CD19+ B cells in the peripheral blood and serum Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients with MS and NMOSD. Methods CD19+CD5+ B, CD3− CD16+CD56+ NK, and CD3+CD56+ NKT cells were quantitated by flow cytometry in 15 individuals with Interferon-Beta (IFN-β) treated relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS), 15 untreated RRMS, and 15 NMOSD patients as well as 30 healthy controls (HC). Serum IL-10 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The percentage of CD3−CD56+CD16+ NK cells in the peripheral blood of IFN-treated MS (1.81 ± 0.87) was significantly lower than for untreated RRMS (4.74 ± 1.80), NMOSD (4.64 ± 1.26) and HC (5.83 ± 2.19) (p < 0.0001). There were also differences for the percentage of CD3−CD16+ and CD3−CD56+ cells (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0007; respectively). IFN-treated RRMS (2.89 ± 1.51) had the lowest proportion of CD3+CD56+ among the study groups (p < 0.002). Untreated RRMS (5.56 ± 3.04) and NMOSD (5.47 ± 1.24) had higher levels of CD3+CD56+ than the HC (3.16 ± 1.98). The mean percentage of CD19+CD5+ B cells in the peripheral blood of untreated RRMS patients (1.32 ± 0.67) was higher compared to the patients with NMOSD (0.30 ± 0.20), HC (0.5 ± 0.22) and IFN-treated RRMS (0.81 ± 0.17) (p < 0.0001). Serum interleukin-10 was significantly higher in the IFN-treated RRMS (8.06 ± 5.39) and in HC (8.38 ± 2.84) compared to untreated RRMS (5.07 ± 1.44) and the patients with NMOSD (5.33 ± 2.56) (p < 0.003). Conclusions The lower proportion of CD3−CD56+ CD16+ NK and CD3+CD56+ cells in peripheral blood of IFN-treated RRMS compared to other groups suggests the importance of immunomodulation in patients with RRMS disorder. Based on the differences in CD19+CD5+ B cells and serum IL-10 between patients and HC, supplementary assessments could be of value in clarifying their roles in autoimmunity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ju Liu ◽  
Xiaoyan Yang ◽  
Jiali Pan ◽  
Zhihua Wei ◽  
Peidong Liu ◽  

Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) are inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Due to the shared clinical manifestations, detection of disease-specific serum antibody of the two diseases is currently considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis; however, the serum antibody levels are unpredictable during different stages of the two diseases. Herein, peripheral blood single-cell transcriptome was used to unveil distinct immune cell signatures of the two diseases, with the aim to provide predictive discrimination. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) was conducted on the peripheral blood from three subjects, i.e., one patient with RRMS, one patient with MOGAD, and one patient with healthy control. The results showed that the CD19+ CXCR4+ naive B cell subsets were significantly expanded in both RRMS and MOGAD, which was verified by flow cytometry. More importantly, RRMS single-cell transcriptomic was characterized by increased naive CD8+ T cells and cytotoxic memory-like Natural Killer (NK) cells, together with decreased inflammatory monocytes, whereas MOGAD exhibited increased inflammatory monocytes and cytotoxic CD8 effector T cells, coupled with decreased plasma cells and memory B cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that the two diseases exhibit distinct immune cell signatures, which allows for highly predictive discrimination of the two diseases and paves a novel avenue for diagnosis and therapy of neuroinflammatory diseases.

Hemato ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-81
Emilie Arnault Carneiro ◽  
Filipa Barahona ◽  
Carolina Pestana ◽  
Cristina João

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second deadliest hematological cancer. Despite the enormous innovation on MM treatment in the last decades, still 48% of patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. MM diagnosis and therapeutic strategy mainly rely on direct bone marrow (BM) assessment. Given the MM heterogeneity, BM biopsies do not accurately reflect the whole disease status, hampering accurate disease prognosis. Moreover, biopsies are painful and invasive procedures, highlighting the need for non-invasive and more accurate source of biomarkers. Liquid biopsies are promising sources of biomarkers that may overcome these limitations. Peripheral blood carries circulating myeloma components that are being extensively explored since the last few years as an alternative to BM aspirates. These include circulating tumor cells (CTC), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), and extracellular vesicles containing miRNA and proteins. The current review summarizes scientific evidence establishing BM as a gold standard for the diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of minimal residual disease. We discuss the last advances regarding cfDNA and CTC biomarkers from peripheral blood in patients with MM as well as the statistical validations. This paper addresses the technological hurdles associated with liquid biopsies and examines the missing steps for their inclusion into the clinical practice.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
Caterina Selina Mildner ◽  
Dragan Copic ◽  
Matthias Zimmermann ◽  
Michael Lichtenauer ◽  
Martin Direder ◽  

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a result of cardiac non-perfusion and leads to cardiomyocyte necrosis, inflammation, and compromised cardiac performance. Here, we showed that the secretome of γ-irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCsec) improved heart function in a porcine AMI model and displayed beneficial long- and short-term effects. As an AMI is known to strongly affect gene regulation of the ischemia non-affected heart muscle and distal organs, we employed a transcriptomics approach to further study the immediate molecular events orchestrated using the PBMCsec in myocardium, liver, and spleen 24 h post ischemia. In the infarcted area, the PBMCsec mainly induced genes that were essential for cardiomyocyte function and simultaneously downregulated pro-inflammatory genes. Interestingly, genes associated with pro-inflammatory processes were activated in the transition zone, while being downregulated in the remote zone. In the liver, we observed a pronounced inhibition of immune responses using the PBMCsec, while genes involved in urea and tricarboxylic cycles were induced. The spleen displayed elevated lipid metabolism and reduced immunological processes. Together, our study suggested several types of pharmacodynamics by which the PBMCsec conferred immediate cardioprotection. Furthermore, our data supported the assumption that an AMI significantly affects distal organs, suggesting that a holistic treatment of an AMI, as achieved by PBMCsec, might be highly beneficial.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010219
Aaqib Sohail ◽  
Azeem A. Iqbal ◽  
Nishika Sahini ◽  
Fangfang Chen ◽  
Mohamed Tantawy ◽  

Excessive inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many viral infections including influenza. Therefore, there is a need for therapeutic interventions that dampen and redirect inflammatory responses and, ideally, exert antiviral effects. Itaconate is an immunomodulatory metabolite which also reprograms cell metabolism and inflammatory responses when applied exogenously. We evaluated effects of endogenous itaconate and exogenous application of itaconate and its variants dimethyl- and 4-octyl-itaconate (DI, 4OI) on host responses to influenza A virus (IAV). Infection induced expression of ACOD1, the enzyme catalyzing itaconate synthesis, in monocytes and macrophages, which correlated with viral replication and was abrogated by DI and 4OI treatment. In IAV-infected mice, pulmonary inflammation and weight loss were greater in Acod1-/- than in wild-type mice, and DI treatment reduced pulmonary inflammation and mortality. The compounds reversed infection-triggered interferon responses and modulated inflammation in human cells supporting non-productive and productive infection, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in human lung tissue. Itaconates reduced ROS levels and STAT1 phosphorylation, whereas AKT phosphorylation was reduced by 4OI and DI but increased by itaconate. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified monocytes as the main target of infection and the exclusive source of ACOD1 mRNA in peripheral blood. DI treatment silenced IFN-responses predominantly in monocytes, but also in lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Ectopic synthesis of itaconate in A549 cells, which do not physiologically express ACOD1, reduced infection-driven inflammation, and DI reduced IAV- and IFNγ-induced CXCL10 expression in murine macrophages independent of the presence of endogenous ACOD1. The compounds differed greatly in their effects on cellular gene homeostasis and released cytokines/chemokines, but all three markedly reduced release of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL2 (MCP-1). Viral replication did not increase under treatment despite the dramatically repressed IFN responses. In fact, 4OI strongly inhibited viral transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the compounds reduced viral titers (4OI>Ita>DI) in A549 cells whereas viral transcription was unaffected. Taken together, these results reveal itaconates as immunomodulatory and antiviral interventions for influenza virus infection.

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