multiple myeloma
Recently Published Documents





Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Hao-Tse Chiu ◽  
Po-Huang Chen ◽  
Hao Yen ◽  
Chao-Yang Chen ◽  
Chih-Wei Yang ◽  

Plasma cell neoplasms are characterized by dysregulated proliferation of mature B cells, which can present with either single (solitary plasmacytoma) or systemic (multiple myeloma (MM)) involvement. MM with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is a rare disease that accounts for approximately 3–5% of all plasmacytomas. EMP with gastrointestinal (GI) system involvement is an even rarer entity, accounting for <1% of MM cases. We present a case of aggressive MM with EMP invading the duodenum, initially presented with massive upper GI hemorrhage and small bowel obstruction. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital owing to a lack of either gas or feces passage for 3 days. Abdominal distention and vomit with a high coffee ground content were observed for 24 h. The patient’s condition was initially diagnosed as small bowel obstruction, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, severe anemia, acute renal failure, and hypercalcemia. Furthermore, an analysis of immunoelectrophoresis in the blood, bone marrow aspiration, and tissue biopsy supported the diagnosis of MM and EMP invading the duodenum, upper GI hemorrhage, and small bowel obstruction. Our study provided the possible involvement of MM and EMP in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained GI hemorrhage and small bowel obstruction. A thorough review of the literature regarding the association between MM, GI hemorrhage, and small bowel obstruction is presented in this study.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 292
Ada-Sophia Clees ◽  
Verena Stolp ◽  
Björn Häupl ◽  
Dominik C. Fuhrmann ◽  
Frank Wempe ◽  

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy, which is characterized by clonal proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow. This microenvironment is characterized by low oxygen levels (1–6% O2), known as hypoxia. For MM cells, hypoxia is a physiologic feature that has been described to promote an aggressive phenotype and to confer drug resistance. However, studies on hypoxia are scarce and show little conformity. Here, we analyzed the mRNA expression of previously determined hypoxia markers to define the temporal adaptation of MM cells to chronic hypoxia. Subsequent analyses of the global proteome in MM cells and the stromal cell line HS-5 revealed hypoxia-dependent regulation of proteins, which directly or indirectly upregulate glycolysis. In addition, chronic hypoxia led to MM-specific regulation of nine distinct proteins. One of these proteins is the cysteine protease legumain (LGMN), the depletion of which led to a significant growth disadvantage of MM cell lines that is enhanced under hypoxia. Thus, herein, we report a methodologic strategy to examine MM cells under physiologic hypoxic conditions in vitro and to decipher and study previously masked hypoxia-specific therapeutic targets such as the cysteine protease LGMN.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 212-224
Alamgir Ahmed

Background: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm with acquired genetic abnormalities of clinical and prognostic importance, with survival duration ranging from a few months to more than 10 years. Cytogenetic abnormalities (CA) detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are of major prognostic significance since e.g. patients with del(17p), t(4;14) or gain 1q21 show dismal outcome. Objective: To evaluate the cytogenetic patterns by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of clinically diagnosed cases of multiple myeloma.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Haematology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, from January 2018 to December 2018. A total number of 30 patients with multiple myeloma were analyzed cytogenetically by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). The collected data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS-24) for windows version 10.0.Results:Out of 30 diagnosed Multiple Myeloma cases the mean age was 56.37±10.38 years and male to female ratio was almost 3:1. Sixteen (56.7%) of 30 patients. Among 30 cases of 8 cases were thyrogenicity positive of 7(23.3%) patients was detected del 13q positive. Isolated del 13q was found in 4 cases. 2 cases were found coexistence of del 13q and del 17p positive ;1 case was found coexistence of del 13q and t(4;14) positive and rest of 1 case had del 17 p positive. There was no detectable t (11; 14) and t(14;16) in any of 30 cases.Conclusion:FISH panel for Multiple Myeloma including del (13q); t(11;14); t(4;14), del(17p), t(14;16) is very important molecular test for the prognosis , risk stratification, treatment modality of the patient. On the basis of cytogenetic abnormality Multiple Myeloma risk stratification is modified now a day. This Revised International Staging system R-ISS is a simple and powerful prognostic staging system.

eJHaem ◽  
2022 ◽  
Francesca Fazio ◽  
Luca Franceschini ◽  
Valeria Tomarchio ◽  
Angela Rago ◽  
Maria Grazia Garzia ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Rafael Alonso ◽  
Juan José Lahuerta

The development of new resources for a more accurate diagnosis and response assessment in multiple myeloma has been a long process for decades, mainly since the middle of the 20th century. During this time, the succession of technical advances has run parallel to the better knowledge of disease biology and the availability of novel therapeutic strategies. The cornerstone of standardized criteria to uniformly evaluate the disease response in myeloma dates back to the 1990s when the key role of complete remission was established. Since then, different updates have been implemented according to available scientific evidences not always without certain controversies. The progressive improvements in survival results of myeloma patients and the growing quality of responses due to the novel therapies have led to the need of developing new tools for better monitoring of tumor burden. In this way, the concept of minimal residual disease and its key value based on the prognostic significance and the clinical relevance has been consolidated during the last years, overcoming the value of conventional response criteria or classical adverse prognosis markers. Nevertheless, its precise role in the clinical management of myeloma patients to detect early treatment failure and trigger early rescue strategies is still pending to be defined. In this review, we revisit the major milestones in the understanding of tumor reduction in multiple myeloma until the most recent imaging techniques or liquid biopsy approaches, including a critical view of conventional response criteria, whose backbone has remained unchanged during the last 20 years.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 904
Emma Verheye ◽  
Jesús Bravo Melgar ◽  
Sofie Deschoemaeker ◽  
Geert Raes ◽  
Anke Maes ◽  

Immunotherapeutic approaches, including adoptive cell therapy, revolutionized treatment in multiple myeloma (MM). As dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells and key initiators of tumor-specific immune responses, DC-based immunotherapy represents an attractive therapeutic approach in cancer. The past years, various DC-based approaches, using particularly ex-vivo-generated monocyte-derived DCs, have been tested in preclinical and clinical MM studies. However, long-term and durable responses in MM patients were limited, potentially attributed to the source of monocyte-derived DCs and the immunosuppressive bone marrow microenvironment. In this review, we briefly summarize the DC development in the bone marrow niche and the phenotypical and functional characteristics of the major DC subsets. We address the known DC deficiencies in MM and give an overview of the DC-based vaccination protocols that were tested in MM patients. Lastly, we also provide strategies to improve the efficacy of DC vaccines using new, improved DC-based approaches and combination therapies for MM patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 350-359
Piotr Łacina ◽  
Aleksandra Butrym ◽  
Diana Frontkiewicz ◽  
Grzegorz Mazur ◽  
Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik

CD147 (basigin, BSG) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein involved in energy metabolism that plays a role in cancer cell survival. Its soluble form is a promising marker of some diseases, but it is otherwise poorly studied. CD147 is overexpressed in multiple myeloma (MM) and is known to affect MM progression, while its genetic variants are associated with MM survival. In the present study, we aimed to assess serum soluble CD147 (sCD147) expression as a potential marker in MM. We found that sCD147 level was higher in MM patients compared to healthy individuals. It was also higher in patients with more advanced disease (ISS III) compared to both patients with less advanced MM and healthy individuals, while its level was observed to drop after positive response to treatment. Patients with high sCD147 were characterized by worse overall survival. sCD147 level did not directly correlate with bone marrow CD147 mRNA expression. In conclusion, this study suggests that serum sCD147 may be a prognostic marker in MM.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document