Medication errors represent one of the most common causes of adverse events in pediatrics and are widely reported in the literature. Despite the awareness that children are at increased risk for medication errors, little is known about the real incidence of the phenomenon. Most studies have focused on prescription, although medication errors also include transcription, dispensing, dosage, administration, and certification errors. Known risk factors for therapeutic errors include parenteral infusions, oral fluid administration, and tablet splitting, as well as the off-label use of drugs with dosages taken from adult literature. Emergency Departments and Intensive Care Units constitute the care areas mainly affected by the phenomenon in the hospital setting. The present paper aims to identify the risk profiles in pediatric therapy to outline adequate preventive strategies. Precisely, through the analysis of the available evidence, solutions such as standardization of recommended doses for children, electronic prescribing, targeted training of healthcare professionals, and implementation of reporting systems will be indicated for the prevention of medication errors.
Background: Patient safety is a major concern for health care professionals. Medication errors have been considered a major indicator of health care quality. The lack of pharmacological knowledge is a cause of medication error among nurses. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pharmacological knowledge and the probability of medical errors in nurses working in Urmia hospitals in 2020. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 490 nurses randomly selected from among those working in hospitals of Urmia in 2020. The data collection tool was a multiple-choice questionnaire about knowledge and pharmacological skills consisting of 3 sections: demographic information, nurses’ drug knowledge, and the confidence level of response in nurses. To analyze questions and hypotheses via SPSS version 21, the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed. Results: The highest pharmaceutical knowledge scores of nurses were related to methods of administration (2.9 ± 1.01 [72.56%]), and the lowest score was related to drug management (1.05 ± 0.63 [52.84%]). The mean of error probability was very low in 28.81% of nurses, low in 37.66%, high in 11.34%, and very high in 22.85%. Pharmaceutical knowledge had a significant relationship with gender, wards, type of hospital, and number of children (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Since the nurses’ level of pharmaceutical knowledge has an important role in the correct prescription of medicine, we suggest that nurse managers and educational supervisors in the field of nursing use in-service training programs and prepare training booklets and posters to promote nurses’ pharmaceutical knowledge in this field.
In part 1 of this article, the authors looked at the enormous possibilities for medication errors to occur ( https://doi.org/10.12968/coan.2021.0033 ). In this second part, the authors consider what can be done to avoid medication errors happening in veterinary practice and how systems of work can be used to help. As identified in the Institute of Medicine's report To Err Is Human, most errors result from faulty systems and processes, not individuals. Before steps can be put in place to avoid medication errors, it must be acknowledged that we are all human and thus susceptible to cognitive biases and external influences that cause us to make mistakes. Hence, any interventions put in place should focus on adjusting systems of work to make it easier to do things right and more difficult to do things wrong.