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2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (8) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Artificial Intelligence (AI) significantly revolutionizes and transforms the global healthcare industry by improving outcomes, increasing efficiency, and enhancing resource utilization. The applications of AI impact every aspect of healthcare operation, particularly resource allocation and capacity planning. This study proposes a multi-step AI-based framework and applies it to a real dataset to predict the length of stay (LOS) for hospitalized patients. The results show that the proposed framework can predict the LOS categories with an AUC of 0.85 and their actual LOS with a mean absolute error of 0.85 days. This framework can support decision-makers in healthcare facilities providing inpatient care to make better front-end operational decisions, such as resource capacity planning and scheduling decisions. Predicting LOS is pivotal in today’s healthcare supply chain (HSC) systems where resources are scarce, and demand is abundant due to various global crises and pandemics. Thus, this research’s findings have practical and theoretical implications in AI and HSC management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rabia Ishaq ◽  
Maryam Shoaib ◽  
Nosheen Sikander Baloch ◽  
Abdul Sadiq ◽  
Abdul Raziq ◽  
...  

BackgroundQuality of Life (QoL) and its determinants are significant in all stages of life, including pregnancy. The physical and emotional changes during pregnancy affect the QoL of pregnant women, affecting both maternal and infant health. Hence, assessing the QoL of pregnant women is gaining interest in literature. We, therefore, aimed to describe the QoL of pregnant women during physiological pregnancy and to identify its associated predictors in women attending a public healthcare institute of Quetta city, Pakistan.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Sandeman Provincial Hospital Quetta city, Pakistan. The respondents were asked to answer the Urdu (lingua franca of Pakistan) version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Physiological Pregnancy. Data were coded and analyzed by SPPS v 21. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to establish normality of the data and non-parametric tests were used accordingly. Quality of Life was assessed as proposed by the developers. The Chi-square test was used to identify significant associations and linear regression was used to identify the predictors of QoL. For all analyses, p < 0.05 was taken significantly.ResultsFour hundred and three pregnant women participated in the study with a response rate of 98%. The mean QoL score was 19.85 ± 4.89 indicating very good QoL in the current cohort. The Chi-Square analysis reported a significant association between age, education, occupation, income, marital status, and trimester. Education was reported as a positive predictor for QoL (p = 0.006, β = 2.157). On the other hand, trimester was reported as a negative predictor of QoL (p = 0.013, β = −1.123).ConclusionImproving the QoL among pregnant women requires better identification of their difficulties and guidance. The current study highlighted educational status and trimester as the predictors of QoL in pregnant women. Health care professionals and policymakers should consider the identified factors while designing therapeutic plans and interventions for pregnant women.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Author(s):  
Jason L. Brown ◽  
Tracy Young ◽  
Emily McKloud ◽  
Mark C. Butcher ◽  
David Bradshaw ◽  
...  

Denture stomatitis (DS) is an inflammatory disease resulting from a polymicrobial biofilm perturbation at the denture surface–palatal mucosa interface. Recommendations made by dental health care professionals often lack clarity for appropriate denture cleaning. This study investigated the efficacy of brushing with off-the-shelf denture cleanser (DC) tablets (Poligrip®) vs. two toothpastes (Colgate® and Crest®) in alleviating the viable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in an in vitro denture biofilm model. Biofilms were grown on poly(methyl)methacrylate (PMMA) discs, then treated daily for 7 days with mechanical disruption (brushing), plus Poligrip® DC, Colgate® or Crest® toothpastes. Weekly treatment with Poligrip® DC on day 7 only was compared to daily modalities. All treatment parameters were processed to determine viable colony forming units for bacteria and fungi using the Miles and Misra technique, and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Brushing with daily DC therapy was the most effective treatment in reducing the viable biofilm over 7 days of treatment. Brushing only was ineffective in controlling the viable bioburden, which was confirmed by CLSM imaging. This data indicates that regular cleansing of PMMA with DC was best for polymicrobial biofilms.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Juan de Dios García-Díaz ◽  
Mónica López-Rodríguez ◽  
Montserrat Morales-Conejo ◽  
Antoni Riera-Mestre ◽  

Abstract Background Lysosomal Storage Diseases (LSDs) are a group of Rare Diseases (RDs) caused by lysosomal enzyme deficiencies. Patients with LSDs suffer from a wide range of symptoms with a strong impact in their daily routines. In this study we aimed to explore the impact of the disease on the lives of patients with four LSDs, as well as how they experience Patient Journey from diagnosis to follow up. Unmet Needs (UNs) perceived by patients and clinicians were assessed to have a better understanding of which initiatives could improve LSDs management and especially those that could result in an improvement of patients’ quality of life. Methods Qualitative research was the research methodology selected for the study. It provides plentiful and holistic insights into people’s views and actions. The study was conducted through in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Results In total, 20 patients and 25 Health Care Professionals (HCPs) from different Spanish regions were interviewed. Patients perceived that the highest impact of the LSDs was on their daily routines, specifically on their emotional side, their work/school environment, their family and their social life. Regarding the Patient Journey experience, the worst perceived stage was the pre-diagnosis, where patients only reported negative perceptions, being the delay in diagnosis and misdiagnosis the most commented issues. On the contrary, the follow-up stage was the one with less negative perceptions. Overall, patients and HCPs agreed on the priority UNs, such as accelerating diagnosis, reducing bureaucracy for the treatment access and a more coordinated attention for the patients, not only among different physicians but also with other professionals such as genetic counselors or social workers. Conclusions Our data shows that there are still UNs to be addressed from the perspective of patients and HCPs. The main UN is accelerating diagnosis, which could be achieved by medical awareness and education, according to clinicians. A more comprehensive disease management was another main point to be worked on to improve LSD-patient experience and quality of life.


Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tilak Joshi ◽  
Pravash Budhathoki ◽  
Anurag Adhikari ◽  
Ayusha Poudel ◽  
Sumit Raut ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Deanna Mill ◽  
Amy Page ◽  
Jacinta Johnson ◽  
Kenneth Lee ◽  
Sandra M. Salter ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Guidelines and practice standards exist to communicate the conduct and behaviour expected of health care professionals and ensure consistent quality practice. It is important that they describe behaviours explicitly so they can be interpreted, enacted and measured with ease. The AACTT framework specifies behaviour in terms of the: Action to be performed, Actor who performs the action, Context where the action occurs, Target who the action is performed with/for and Time when the action is performed (AACTT). It provides the most up to date framework for specifying behaviours and is particularly relevant to complex behavioural problems that involve sequences of behaviours performed by different people. Behavioural specificity within pharmacy practice standards has not been explored. Aim To determine if behaviours described in the Professional Practice Standards for Australian Pharmacists specify Action, Actor, Context, Target and Time. Methods Two researchers independently reviewed the scope and structure of the practice standards and one extracted action statements (behaviours) verbatim. Through an iterative process, the researchers modified and developed the existing AACTT definitions to operationalise them for application to review of the action statements in the practice standards. The operational definitions, decision criteria and curated examples were combined in a codebook. The definitions were consistently applied through a directed content analysis approach to evaluate all extracted action statements by one researcher. For consistency 20% was independently checked for agreement by a second researcher. Results A novel codebook to apply AACTT criteria to evaluate practice standards was developed. Application of this codebook identified 768 independent behaviours. Of these, 300 (39%) described at least one discrete observable action, none specified an actor, 25 (3%) specified context, 131 (17%) specified target and 88 (11%) specified time. Conclusion(s) The behaviours detailed in practice standards for Australian pharmacists do not consistently specify behaviours in terms of Action, Actor, Context, Target and Time. Developers in the pharmacy profession, and beyond, should consider the behavioural specificity of their documents to improve interpretability, usability and adherence to the behaviours detailed. This also has implications for the development and evaluation of interventions to change such behaviours and improve quality of care.


2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
C. Bausewein ◽  
F. Hodiamont ◽  
N. Berges ◽  
A. Ullrich ◽  
C. Gerlach ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, general and specialist Palliative Care (PC) plays an essential role in health care, contributing to symptom control, psycho-social support, and providing support in complex decision making. Numbers of COVID-19 related deaths have recently increased demanding more palliative care input. Also, the pandemic impacts on palliative care for non-COVID-19 patients. Strategies on the care for seriously ill and dying people in pandemic times are lacking. Therefore, the program ‘Palliative care in Pandemics’ (PallPan) aims to develop and consent a national pandemic plan for the care of seriously ill and dying adults and their informal carers in pandemics including (a) guidance for generalist and specialist palliative care of patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infections on the micro, meso and macro level, (b) collection and development of information material for an online platform, and (c) identification of variables and research questions on palliative care in pandemics for the national pandemic cohort network (NAPKON). Methods Mixed-methods project including ten work packages conducting (online) surveys and qualitative interviews to explore and describe i) experiences and burden of patients (with/without SARS-CoV-2 infection) and their relatives, ii) experiences, challenges and potential solutions of health care professionals, stakeholders and decision makers during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The work package results inform the development of a consensus-based guidance. In addition, best practice examples and relevant literature will be collected and variables for data collection identified. Discussion For a future “pandemic preparedness” national and international recommendations and concepts for the care of severely ill and dying people are necessary considering both generalist and specialist palliative care in the home care and inpatient setting.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Laura Seppänen ◽  
Inka Koskela ◽  
Heli Heikkilä ◽  
Helena Leino-Kilpi ◽  
Päivi Rautava ◽  
...  

Purpose Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is increasingly important in work and workplace learning. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of IPC that are relevant for learning and developing at work. Design/methodology/approach We examine IPC in the discussion data of health care professionals when designing, implementing and evaluating developmental tasks. Qualitative content analysis is carried out on temporally sequential task trajectories, considering IPC from the perspective of the objects and goals of IPC task activity in developmental efforts. Findings The developmentally relevant characteristics of IPC are crystallized in the concepts of coordination, co-creation and community building, which play different, interdependent roles in development efforts. We show their interplay and how they complement each other in practice. Research limitations/implications Our findings regarding IPC characteristics are to be interpreted as working hypotheses and resources for further research. Practical implications Understanding the dynamics of IPC is useful for renewing work practices. Attention to the interplay and complementarity of IPC characteristics may help in the design and implementation of effective and sustained development efforts. Originality/value The dynamics of IPC in developmental settings have not been sufficiently studied. This paper proposes three developmentally relevant and intertwined characteristics of IPC for scholars of workplace learning.


Author(s):  
Ogochukwu Chinedum Okoye ◽  
Oluseyi Ademola Adejumo ◽  
Abimbola Olubukunola Opadeyi ◽  
Cynthia Roli Madubuko ◽  
Maureen Ntaji ◽  
...  

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