Semicircular Canal
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 557-566
Ian S. Curthoys

I list a summary of the major clinical observations of SVIN in patients with total unilateral vestibular loss (TUVL) and show how basic results from neurophysiology can explain these clinical observations. The account integrates results from single neuron recordings of identified semicircular canal and otolith afferent neurons in guinea pigs in response to low frequency skull vibration with evidence of the eye movement response in cats to selective semicircular canal stimulation (both individual and combined) and a simple model of nystagmus generation to show how these results explain most of the major characteristics of SVIN.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Ruijie Wang ◽  
Xiuhua Chao ◽  
Jianfen Luo ◽  
Daogong Zhang ◽  
Jiliang Xu ◽  

BACKGROUND: To date, systematically objective evaluations of vestibular function in children with cochlear implantation (CI) have been conducted sparsely, especiallyin children with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate the function of all five vestibular end-organs pre- and post-cochlear implantation in children with LVAS and normal CT. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 34 children (age 4–17 years) with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) undergoing unilateral CI were included. Participants included 18 (52.9%) children with LVAS. Objective modalities to evaluate vestibular function included the caloric test, cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP), ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP), and video head impulse test (vHIT). All measurements were performed before surgery and 9 months after surgery. RESULTS: Mean age at CI was 8.1±3.7 years. Caloric testing showed hypofunction in 38.2%of cases before implantation and in 50%after (p >  0.05). We found a significant increase of overall abnormality rate in cVEMP and oVEMP from pre- to post-CI (p <  0.05). In all three semicircular canals tested by vHIT, there were no statistically significant mean gain changes (p >  0.05). Higher deterioration rates in cVEMP (53.3%) and oVEMP (52.0%) after surgery were observed (p <  0.05). In children with LVAS, cVEMP revealed a higher deterioration rate than superior semicircular canal (SSC) and posterior semicircular canal (PSC) (p <  0.05). In children with normal CT, the deterioration rates in VEMPs were both higher than those in vHIT (p <  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In general, the otolith organs were the most affected peripheral vestibular sensors in children after cochlear implantation. The variations in otolith function influenced by CI were different between children with LVAS and normal CT. We recommend the use of this vestibular function test battery for children with cochlear implantation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuzhi Wu ◽  
Ping Lin ◽  
Yanyan Zheng ◽  
Yifei Zhou ◽  
Zhaobang Liu ◽  

Located deep in the temporal bone, the semicircular canal is a subtle structure that requires a spatial coordinate system for measurement and observation. In this study, 55 semicircular canal and eyeball models were obtained by segmentation of MRI data. The spatial coordinate system was established by taking the top of the common crus and the bottom of the eyeball as the horizontal plane. First, the plane equation was established according to the centerline of the semicircular canals. Then, according to the parameters of the plane equation, the plane normal vectors were obtained. Finally, the average unit normal vector of each semicircular canal plane was obtained by calculating the average value of the vectors. The standard normal vectors of the and left posterior semicircular canal, superior semicircular canal and lateral semicircular canal were [−0.651, 0.702, 0.287], [0.749, 0.577, 0.324], [−0.017, −0.299, 0.954], [0.660, 0.702, 0.266], [−0.739, 0.588, 0.329], [0.025, −0.279, 0.960]. The different angles for the different ways of calculating the standard normal vectors of the right and left posterior semicircular canal, superior semicircular canal and lateral semicircular canal were 0.011, 0.028, 0.008, 0.011, 0.024, and 0.006 degrees. The technology for measuring the semicircular canal spatial attitudes in this study are reliable, and the measurement results can guide vestibular function examinations and help with guiding the diagnosis and treatment of BPPV.

2021 ◽  
pp. 014556132110471
Suming Shi ◽  
Ping Guo ◽  
Wenquan Li ◽  
Wuqing Wang

Objectives This study aimed to investigate the perilymph metabolism by analyzing the 3D real IR MR findings in acoustic neuroma (AN) after intravenous administration of gadolinium (Gd). Methods Eleven patients (6 men and 5 women) diagnosed with AN were included, and 3D real IR MRI was performed 4 hours after intravenous Gd injection. The signal intensity and details of inner ear, tumor, and internal auditory canal (IAC) by MRI were analyzed. Results Four patients had tumors confined to the IAC, and 5 had tumors that extended to the cerebellopontine angle cistern. The signal intensity of the cochlea, vestibule, and IAC fundus was conspicuously enhanced in 3D real IR images than the control side. One patient had a tumor in the cochlea, in which the signal intensity of the semicircular canal and vestibule was increased. One patient had an intravestibular tumor in which the signal intensity of the semicircular canal was increased and the cochlea had endolymphatic hydrops in the affected ear. Conclusions The synchronously increased signal intensity in the inner ear and IAC may indicate that IAC may serve as a channel for removal of the perilymph in the inner ear; the blockage by the tumor may have changed the hydrodynamics of the perilymph to cause a longer retention of Gd in the inner ear.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Jianliang Zhu ◽  
Jin Woong Choi ◽  
Yasuko Ishibashi ◽  
Kevin Isgrig ◽  
Mhamed Grati ◽  

AbstractHearing loss is a common disability affecting the world’s population today. While several studies have shown that inner ear gene therapy can be successfully applied to mouse models of hereditary hearing loss to improve hearing, most of these studies rely on inner ear gene delivery in the neonatal age, when mouse inner ear has not fully developed. However, the human inner ear is fully developed at birth. Therefore, in order for inner ear gene therapy to be successfully applied in patients with hearing loss, one must demonstrate that gene delivery can be safely and reliably performed in the mature mammalian inner ear. In this study, we examine the steps involved in posterior semicircular canal gene delivery in the adult mouse inner ear. We find that the duration of perilymphatic leakage and injection rate have a significant effect on the post-surgical hearing outcome. Our results show that although AAV2.7m8 has a lower hair cell transduction rate in adult mice compared to neonatal mice at equivalent viral load, AAV2.7m8 is capable of transducing the adult mouse inner and outer hair cells with high efficiency in a dose-dependent manner.

A. García-Barrios ◽  
A. I. Cisneros ◽  
J. Obon ◽  
R. Crovetto ◽  
J. Benito ◽  

Abstract Objective To study the anatomical correlation between the arcuate eminence and the superior semicircular canal. Material and methods A study of the height of the arcuate eminence was carried out in 295 temporal bones. In addition, 30 temporals with different heights of the arcuate eminence (10 flat, 10 prominent and 10 very prominent) were randomly selected and radiological tests were performed by computed tomography (Pöschl projection) and subsequent dissection by milling until the apex of the superior semicircular canal was found, establishing, with both methods, the anatomical relationship with the arcuate eminence. Results The arcuate eminence was classified as: smooth, when there was no relief (1.7%); flat, measured less than 1 mm (20.3%), prominent, measured between 1 and 2 mm, in (62%), and very prominent, measured above 2 mm (12.6%). The tomographic study (CT) and its subsequent dissection by bone milling showed a direct relationship between the arcuate eminence and the semicircular canal only when it was flat, while the rest of the types corresponded to the presence of pneumatized peri-labyrinthine cells and/or cancellous bone without a direct anatomical relationship with the apex of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusion The correlation between the arcuate eminence and the superior semicircular canal is direct only when it is flat (1 mm), being related to peri-labyrinthine cells and/or cancellous bone when the arcuate eminence is prominent or very prominent.

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