Frontiers in Neurology
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mayra Bittencourt ◽  
Sebastián A. Balart-Sánchez ◽  
Natasha M. Maurits ◽  
Joukje van der Naalt

Self-reported complaints are common after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Particularly in the elderly with mTBI, the pre-injury status might play a relevant role in the recovery process. In most mTBI studies, however, pre-injury complaints are neither analyzed nor are the elderly included. Here, we aimed to identify which individual pre- and post-injury complaints are potential prognostic markers for incomplete recovery (IR) in elderly patients who sustained an mTBI. Since patients report many complaints across several domains that are strongly related, we used an interpretable machine learning (ML) approach to robustly deal with correlated predictors and boost classification performance. Pre- and post-injury levels of 20 individual complaints, as self-reported in the acute phase, were analyzed. We used data from two independent studies separately: UPFRONT study was used for training and validation and ReCONNECT study for independent testing. Functional outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). We dichotomized functional outcome into complete recovery (CR; GOSE = 8) and IR (GOSE ≤ 7). In total 148 elderly with mTBI (median age: 67 years, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 years; UPFRONT: N = 115; ReCONNECT: N = 33) were included in this study. IR was observed in 74 (50%) patients. The classification model (IR vs. CR) achieved a good performance (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [ROC-AUC] = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.74–0.86) based on a subset of only 8 out of 40 pre- and post-injury complaints. We identified increased neck pain (p = 0.001) from pre- to post-injury as the strongest predictor of IR, followed by increased irritability (p = 0.011) and increased forgetfulness (p = 0.035) from pre- to post-injury. Our findings indicate that a subset of pre- and post-injury physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints has predictive value for determining long-term functional outcomes in elderly patients with mTBI. Particularly, post-injury neck pain, irritability, and forgetfulness scores were associated with IR and should be assessed early. The application of an ML approach holds promise for application in self-reported questionnaires to predict outcomes after mTBI.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yangyi Fan ◽  
Yicheng Xu ◽  
Ming Shen ◽  
Huailian Guo ◽  
Zhaoxu Zhang

Objectives: The main markers of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) on MRI may be entered into a scoring system, with the total score representing the overall burden of cSVD. An association between total cSVD score and cognitive dysfunction has been reported in several cohorts. The present study aimed to investigate this association in outpatients with amnestic disorders.Materials and Methods: Outpatients with amnestic complaints in a memory clinic (n = 289) were recruited retrospectively. All the patients had undergone clinical and cognitive evaluation at first presentation. Cognitive function was assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale. The total cSVD score was based on the following markers on MRI: lacune; white matter hyperintensities, microbleed, and enlarged perivascular spaces. The association between total cSVD score and MoCA score was tested via Spearman's analysis and a linear regression model.Results: Among the 289 patients, rates for 0–4 cSVD markers respectively ranged from 30.4 to 2.8%. A multiple linear regression model revealed an inverse correlation between the total cSVD score and MoCA score. The association remained significant after adjusting for gender, age, education, levels of medial temporal lobe atrophy, and classical vascular risk factors [β = −0.729, 95% CI (−1.244, −0.213); P = 0.006]. When individual markers were individually analyzed after adjusting for the same factors, only microbleed associated with MoCA score [β = −3.007, 95% CI (−4.533, −1.480), P < 0.001].Conclusions: A significant association was demonstrated between total cSVD score and cognitive performance in the outpatients with amnestic disorders.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Louisa Schaller ◽  
Michael Arzt ◽  
Bettina Jung ◽  
Carsten A. Böger ◽  
Iris M. Heid ◽  
...  

Hypothesis: Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the standard treatment for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), a prevalent condition in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Recent studies showed that short-term PAP treatment may cause weight gain. However, long-term data for patients with DM2 are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present analysis was to assess changes in weight and glycemic control in patients with DM2 and treated vs. untreated SDB.Methods: The DIAbetes COhoRtE (DIACORE) study is a prospective population-based cohort study in patients with DM2. At baseline, patients of the DIACORE-SDB sub-study were tested for SDB [defined as apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI) ≥ 15/h] using a two-channel ambulatory SDB-monitoring device. In this observational study, PAP treatment was initiated in a subgroup of patients with SDB (SDB PAP) within clinical routine between the baseline and first follow-up visit [median observation period of 2.3 (2.2; 2.4) years], whereas the other patients with SDB did not receive PAP (SDB untreated). At baseline and first follow-up visit, weight and HbA1c were assessed.Results: Of the 346 patients with SDB [mean age 68 years, 71% male, body-mass index (BMI) 31.9 kg/m2], 17% were in the SDB PAP and 83% in the SDB untreated group. Weight change within the observation period was similar in both groups (−0.2 and −0.9 kg; p = 0.322). The percentage of patients with severe weight gain (≥ 5 kg) within the observation period was significantly higher in the SDB PAP group compared to the SDB untreated group (15.0 vs. 5.6%; p = 0.011). Multivariable regression analysis, accounting for baseline HbA1c, insulin substitution, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), physical activity, and AHI, showed that PAP treatment was significantly associated with a weight gain ≥ 5 kg [odds ratio (OR) = 3.497; 95% CI (1.343; 9.106); p = 0.010] and an increase in HbA1c [B = 2.410; 95% CI (0.118; 4.702); p = 0.039].Conclusion: Median weight change was similar in patients with SDB with and without PAP treatment. However, patients with DM2 and PAP treatment have an increased risk of severe long-term weight gain and an increase in HbA1c.Clinical Trial registration: DRKS00010498


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Junzhao Cui ◽  
Jingyi Yang ◽  
Kun Zhang ◽  
Guodong Xu ◽  
Ruijie Zhao ◽  
...  

Objectives: Patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion are at high risk of acute ischemic stroke, which could be disabling or fatal. In this study, we applied machine learning to develop and validate two prediction models for acute ischemic stroke (Model 1) and severity of neurological impairment (Model 2), both caused by anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (AC-LVO), based on medical history and neuroimaging data of patients on admission.Methods: A total of 1,100 patients with AC- LVO from the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University in North China were enrolled, of which 713 patients presented with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) related to AC- LVO and 387 presented with the non-acute ischemic cerebrovascular event. Among patients with the non-acute ischemic cerebrovascular events, 173 with prior stroke or TIA were excluded. Finally, 927 patients with AC-LVO were entered into the derivation cohort. In the external validation cohort, 150 patients with AC-LVO from the Hebei Province People's Hospital, including 99 patients with AIS related to AC- LVO and 51 asymptomatic AC-LVO patients, were retrospectively reviewed. We developed four machine learning models [logistic regression (LR), regularized LR (RLR), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF)], whose performance was internally validated using 5-fold cross-validation. The performance of each machine learning model for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) was compared and the variables of each algorithm were ranked.Results: In model 1, among the included patients with AC-LVO, 713 (76.9%) and 99 (66%) suffered an acute ischemic stroke in the derivation and external validation cohorts, respectively. The ROC-AUC of LR, RLR and SVM were significantly higher than that of the RF in the external validation cohorts [0.66 (95% CI 0.57–0.74) for LR, 0.66 (95% CI 0.57–0.74) for RLR, 0.55 (95% CI 0.45–0.64) for RF and 0.67 (95% CI 0.58–0.76) for SVM]. In model 2, 254 (53.9%) and 31 (37.8%) patients suffered disabling ischemic stroke in the derivation and external validation cohorts, respectively. There was no difference in AUC among the four machine learning algorithms in the external validation cohorts.Conclusions: Machine learning methods with multiple clinical variables have the ability to predict acute ischemic stroke and the severity of neurological impairment in patients with AC-LVO.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Duo Lan ◽  
Siying Song ◽  
Yunhuan Liu ◽  
Baolian Jiao ◽  
Ran Meng

Background and Purpose: The mechanism of action of Batroxobin included the decomposition of the fibrinogen to fibrin degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimer and mobilization of endothelial cells to release endogenous nt-PA and to promote thrombolysis. This review aims to summarize current study findings about batroxobin on correcting cerebral arterial, venous, and peripheral vascular diseases, to explore the mechanism of batroxobin on anti-thrombosis process.Methods: A thorough literature search was conducted utilizing the PubMed Central (PMC) and EMBASE databases to identify studies up to June 2021. Data from clinical studies and animal experiments about batroxobin were extracted, integrated and analyzed based on Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions approach and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P), including the condition of subjects, the usage and dosage, research observation index and main findings.Results: A total of 62 studies were enrolled in this systematic review, including 26 clinical studies and 36 animal experiments. The 26 clinical studies involved 873 patients with arterial ischemic events, 92 cases with cerebral venous thrombosis, 13 cases with cerebral cortical vein thrombosis, and 1,049 cases with peripheral vascular diseases. These patients included 452 males and 392 females aged 65.6 ± 5.53 years. The results revealed that batroxobin had broad effects, including improving clinical prognosis (n = 12), preventing thrombosis (n = 7), promoting thrombolysis (n = 6), and improving vascular cognitive dysfunction (n = 1). The effects of batroxobin on reducing neuronal apoptosis (n = 8),relieving cellular edema (n = 4), improving spatial memory (n = 3), and promoting thrombolysis (n = 13) were concluded in animal experiments. The predominant mechanisms explored in animal experiments involved promoting depolymerization of fibrinogen polymers (n = 6), regulating the expression of related molecules (n = 9); such as intercellular adhesion molecule, heat shock proteins, tumor necrosis factor), reducing oxidative stress (n = 5), and reducing inflammation response (n = 4).Conclusion: Batroxobin can correct both arterial and venous ischemic diseases by promoting depolymerization of fibrinogen polymers, regulating the expression of related molecules, reducing oxidative stress, and reducing the inflammation response.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jordi Diaz-Manera ◽  
Anna Pichiecchio ◽  
Francesco Santini ◽  
Massimiliano Filosto

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kirsty Crowe ◽  
Terence J. Quinn ◽  
Patrick B. Mark ◽  
Mark D. Findlay

Cognitive impairment is independently associated with kidney disease and increases in prevalence with declining kidney function. At the stage where kidney replacement therapy is required, with dialysis or transplantation, cognitive impairment is up to three times more common, and can present at a younger age. This is not a new phenomenon. The cognitive interactions of kidney disease are long recognized from historical accounts of uremic encephalopathy and so-called “dialysis dementia” to the more recent recognition of cognitive impairment in those undergoing kidney replacement therapy (KRT). The understanding of cognitive impairment as an extra-renal complication of kidney failure and effect of its treatments is a rapidly developing area of renal medicine. Multiple proposed mechanisms contribute to this burden. Advanced vascular aging, significant multi-morbidity, mood disorders, and sleep dysregulation are common in addition to the disease-specific effects of uremic toxins, chronic inflammation, and the effect of dialysis itself. The impact of cognitive impairment on people living with kidney disease is vast ranging from increased hospitalization and mortality to decreased quality of life and altered decision making. Assessment of cognition in patients attending for renal care could have benefits. However, in the context of a busy clinical service, a pragmatic approach to assessing cognitive function is necessary and requires consideration of the purpose of testing and resources available. Limited evidence exists to support treatments to mitigate the degree of cognitive impairment observed, but promising interventions include physical or cognitive exercise, alteration to the dialysis treatment and kidney transplantation. In this review we present the history of cognitive impairment in those with kidney failure, and the current understanding of the mechanisms, effects, and implications of impaired cognition. We provide a practical approach to clinical assessment and discuss evidence-supported treatments and future directions in this ever-expanding area which is pivotal to our patients' quality and quantity of life.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sherrilene Classen ◽  
Justin R. Mason ◽  
Seung Woo Hwangbo ◽  
Virginia Sisiopiku

Shared autonomous vehicle services (i. e., automated shuttles, AS) are being deployed globally and may improve older adults (>65 years old) mobility, independence, and participation in the community. However, AS must be user friendly and provide safety benefits if older drivers are to accept and adopt this technology. Current potential barriers to their acceptance of AS include a lack of trust in the systems and hesitation to adopt emerging technology. Technology readiness, perceived ease of use, perceived barriers, and intention to use the technology, are particularly important constructs to consider in older adults' acceptance and adoption practices of AS. Likewise, person factors, i.e., age, life space mobility, driving habits, and cognition predict driving safety among older drivers. However, we are not sure if and how these factors may also predict older adults' intention to use the AS. In the current study, we examined responses from 104 older drivers (Mage = 74.3, SDage = 5.9) who completed the Automated Vehicle User Perception Survey (AVUPS) before and after riding in an on-road automated shuttle (EasyMile EZ10). The study participants also provided information through the Technology Readiness Index, Technology Acceptance Measure, Life Space Questionnaire, Driving Habits Questionnaire, Trail-making Test Part A and Part B (TMT A and TMT B). Older drivers' age, cognitive scores (i.e., TMT B), driving habits (i.e., crashes and/or citations, exposure, and difficulty of driving) and life space (i.e., how far older adults venture from their primary dwelling) were entered into four models to predict their acceptance of AVs—operationalized according to the subscales (i.e., intention to use, perceived barriers, and well-being) and the total acceptance score of the AVUPS. Next, a partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) elucidated the relationships between, technology readiness, perceived ease of use, barriers to AV acceptance, life space, crashes and/or citations, driving exposure, driving difficulty, cognition, and intention to use AS. The regression models indicated that neither age nor cognition (TMT B) significantly predicted older drivers' perceptions of AVs; but their self-reported driving difficulty (p = 0.019) predicted their intention to use AVs: R2 = 6.18%, F (2,101) = 4.554, p = 0.040. Therefore, intention to use was the dependent variable in the subsequent PLS-SEM. Findings from the PLS-SEM (R2 = 0.467) indicated the only statistically significant predictors of intention to use were technology readiness (β = 0.247, CI = 0.087-0.411) and barriers to AV acceptance (β = −0.504, CI = 0.285-0.692). These novel findings provide evidence suggesting that technology readiness and barriers must be better understood if older drivers are to accept and adopt AS.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chengyuan Wu ◽  
Sean J. Nagel ◽  
Rahul Agarwal ◽  
Monika Pötter-Nerger ◽  
Wolfgang Hamel ◽  
...  

Objective: There have been significant improvements in the design and manufacturing of deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems, but no study has considered the impact of modern systems on complications. We sought to compare the relative occurrence of reoperations after de novo implantation of modern and traditional DBS systems in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) or essential tremor (ET) in the United States.Design: Retrospective, contemporaneous cohort study.Setting: Multicenter data from the United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services administrative claims database between 2016 and 2018.Participants: This population-based sample consisted of 5,998 patients implanted with a DBS system, of which 3,869 patients had a de novo implant and primary diagnosis of PD or ET. Follow-up of 3 months was available for 3,810 patients, 12 months for 3,561 patients, and 24 months for 1,812 patients.Intervention: Implantation of a modern directional (MD) or traditional omnidirectional (TO) DBS system.Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures: We hypothesized that MD systems would impact complication rates. Reoperation rate was the primary outcome. Associated diagnoses, patient characteristics, and implanting center details served as covariates. Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed to compare rates of event-free survival and regression models were used to determine covariate influences.Results: Patients implanted with modern systems were 36% less likely to require reoperation, largely due to differences in acute reoperations and intracranial lead reoperations. Risk reduction persisted while accounting for practice differences and implanting center experience. Risk reduction was more pronounced in patients with PD.Conclusions: In the first multicenter analysis of device-related complications including modern DBS systems, we found that modern systems are associated with lower reoperation rates. This risk profile should be carefully considered during device selection for patients undergoing DBS for PD or ET. Prospective studies are needed to further investigate underlying causes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zihao Zhou ◽  
Sheng Zhang ◽  
Fangqi Hu

Craniopharyngioma is an intracranial congenital epithelial tumor growing along the pathway of the embryonic craniopharyngeal tube. The main clinical symptoms of patients with craniopharyngioma include high intracranial pressure, visual field defect, endocrine dysfunction, and hypothalamic dysfunction. At present, the preferred treatment remains the surgical treatment, but the recovery of endocrine and hypothalamic function following surgery is limited. In addition, endocrine disorders often emerge following surgery, which seriously reduces the quality of life of patients after operation. So far, research on craniopharyngioma focuses on ways to ameliorate endocrine dysfunction. This article reviews the latest research progress on pathogenesis, manifestation, significance, and treatment of endocrine disorders in patients with craniopharyngioma.


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