ObjectivePoststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is a serious complication of stroke. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of peripheral inflammation. The relationship between the NLR and PSCI is far from well studied, and the thesis of this study was to assess the predictive value of the NLR in patients with PSCI, and establish and verify the corresponding prediction model based on this relationship.MethodsA total of 367 stroke patients were included in this study. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and NLRs were measured at baseline, and clinical and neuropsychological assessments were conducted 3 months after stroke. The National Institutes of Health Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess the severity of stroke. A Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for the assessment of cognitive function.ResultsAfter three months of follow-up, 87 (23.7%) patients were diagnosed with PSCI. The NLR was significantly higher in PSCI patients than in non-PSCI patients (P < 0.001). Patient age, sex, body mass index, NIHSS scores, and high-density lipoprotein levels also differed in the univariate analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, the NLR was an independent risk factor associated with the patients with PSCI after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.21–2.29, P = 0.002). The nomogram based on patient sex, age, NIHSS score, and NLR had good predictive power with an AUC of 0.807. In the validation group, the AUC was 0.816.ConclusionAn increased NLR at admission is associated with PSCI, and the model built with NLR as one of the predictors can increase prognostic information for the early detection of PSCI.
Autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitides represent an increasingly recognized cause of devastating human illness as well as an emerging area of neurological injury associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Two groups of antibodies have been detected in affected patients. Antibodies in the first group are directed against neuronal cell surface membrane proteins and are exemplified by antibodies directed against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR), found in patients with autoimmune encephalitis, and antibodies directed against the leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (anti-LGI1), associated with faciobrachial dystonic seizures and limbic encephalitis. Antibodies in this group produce non-lethal neuronal dysfunction, and their associated conditions often respond to treatment. Antibodies in the second group, as exemplified by anti-Yo antibody, found in patients with rapidly progressive cerebellar syndrome, and anti-Hu antibody, associated with encephalomyelitis, react with intracellular neuronal antigens. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with underlying malignancy, and neurological impairment is the result of neuronal death. Within the last few years, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of neurological disorders associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface antigens. In contrast, the events that lead to neuronal death in conditions associated with antibodies directed against intracellular antigens, such as anti-Yo and anti-Hu, remain poorly understood, and the respective roles of antibodies and T lymphocytes in causing neuronal injury have not been defined in an animal model. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of these two groups of antibodies in terms of their discovery, how they arise, the interaction of both types of antibodies with their molecular targets, and the attempts that have been made to reproduce human neuronal injury in tissue culture models and experimental animals. We then discuss the emerging area of autoimmune neuronal injury associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors and the implications of current research for the treatment of affected patients.
Background:Mast syndrome is a rare disorder belonging to the group of hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs). It is caused by bi-allelic mutations in the ACP33 gene, and is originally described in Old Order Amish. Outside this population, only one Japanese and one Italian family have been reported. Herein, we describe five subjects from the first three SPG21 families of German and Austrian descent.Methods:Five subjects with complicated HSP were referred to our centers. The workup consisted of neurological examination, neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessments, MRI, and genetic testing.Results:Onset varied from child- to adulthood. All patients exhibited predominant spastic para- or tetraparesis with positive pyramidal signs, pronounced cognitive impairment, ataxia, and extrapyramidal signs. Neurophysiological workup showed abnormal motor and sensory evoked potentials in all the patients. Sensorimotor axonal neuropathy was present in one patient. Imaging exhibited thin corpus callosum and global brain atrophy. Genetic testing revealed one heterozygous compound and two homozygous mutations in the ACP33 gene.Conclusion:Herein, we report the first three Austrian and two German patients with SPG21, presenting a detailed description of their clinical phenotype and disease course. Our report adds to the knowledge of this extremely rare disorder, and highlights that SPG21 must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of complicated HSP outside the Amish community.
Among the many symptoms (motor, sensory, and cognitive) associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic pain is a common disabling condition. In particular, neuropathic pain symptoms are very prevalent and debilitating, even in early stages of the disease. Unfortunately, chronic pain still lacks efficient therapeutic agents. Progress is needed (i) clinically by better characterizing pain symptoms in MS and understanding the underlying mechanisms, and (ii) preclinically by developing a more closely dedicated model to identify new therapeutic targets and evaluate new drugs. In this setting, new variants of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are currently developed in mice to exhibit less severe motor impairments, thereby avoiding confounding factors in assessing pain behaviors over the disease course. Among these, the optimized relapsing-remitting EAE (QuilA-EAE) mouse model, induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide fragment (35–55), pertussis toxin, and quillaja bark saponin, seems very promising. Our study sought (i) to better define sensitive dysfunctions and (ii) to extend behavioral characterization to interfering symptoms often associated with pain during MS, such as mood disturbances, fatigue, and cognitive impairment, in this optimized QuilA-EAE model. We made an in-depth characterization of this optimized QuilA-EAE model, describing for the first time somatic thermal hyperalgesia associated with mechanical and cold allodynia. Evaluation of orofacial pain sensitivity showed no mechanical or thermal allodynia. Detailed evaluation of motor behaviors highlighted slight defects in fine motor coordination in the QuilA-EAE mice but without impact on pain evaluation. Finally, no anxiety-related or cognitive impairment was observed during the peak of sensitive symptoms. Pharmacologically, as previously described, we found that pregabalin, a treatment commonly used in neuropathic pain patients, induced an analgesic effect on mechanical allodynia. In addition, we showed an anti-hyperalgesic thermal effect on this model. Our results demonstrate that this QuilA-EAE model is clearly of interest for studying pain symptom development and so could be used to identify and evaluate new therapeutic targets. The presence of interfering symptoms still needs to be further characterized.
Background and PurposeThe impact of serum amyloid A on cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between serum amyloid A (SAA) levels and post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) at 3 months after ischemic stroke.MethodsOne hundred and ninety-eight patients were enrolled prospectively from June 2020 to April 2021. The SAA concentrations were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit after admission. Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score at 3 months after the symptom onset. We defined a Montreal Cognitive Assessment score <25 as cognitive impairment.ResultsDuring 3-month follow-up, 80 patients (40.4%) were diagnosed as having PSCI. As compared with patients with cognitively normal ischemic stroke, those with PSCI were older, more likely to have diabetes and white matter lesions, and had a higher baseline National Institutes of Health stroke score and SAA levels. After adjustment for age, the National Institutes of Health stroke score and other covariates, the OR for the highest quartile of SAA compared with the lowest quartile was 5.72 (95% CI, 2.17–15.04, P = 0.001) for PSCI. Also, ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that higher SAA concentrations were associated with increased risk of PSCI severity (OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.81–10.33, P = 0.001). Similar results were found when the SAA levels were analyzed as a continuous variable.ConclusionsThis present study demonstrated that increased SAA levels might be associated with PSCI at 3 months after ischemic stroke.
Impedance measurement of human tissue can be performed either in vivo or ex vivo. The majority of the in-vivo approaches are non-invasive, and few are invasive. To date, there is no gold standard for impedance measurement of intracranial tissue. In addition, most of the techniques addressing this topic are still experimental and have not found their way into clinical practice. This review covers available impedance measurement approaches in the neuroscience in general and specifically addresses recent advances made in the application of impedance measurement in the field of surgical neurooncology. It will provide an understandable picture on impedance measurement and give an overview of limitations that currently hinders clinical application and require future technical and conceptual solutions.
PurposeThis study aimed to analyse the correlation between the pyroptosis pathway and epilepsy using bioinformatics analysis technology. We analyzed the expression of gasdermin D (GSDMD) and gasdermin E (GSDME), the key molecules of pyroptosis, in kainic acid-induced epileptic mice.MethodsWeighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to construct a signed co-expression network from expression data to screen gene sets closely related to epilepsy. The correlation between the module and epilepsy was verified through module conservative analysis, gene ontology (GO) annotation analysis, and correlation analysis with known epilepsy genes. We obtained currently recognized pyroptosis-related molecules through literature review, and correlation analysis was used to evaluate their correlation with epilepsy. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis was used to analyse expression changes of pyroptosis-related molecules at the transcriptome level, compared to the sham group. We subsequently established a kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) model in mice and validated the mRNA and protein expression of GSDMD and GSDME, the key molecules of pyroptosis, by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting (WB).ResultsUsing WGCNA, module conservative analysis, and correlation analysis with known epilepsy genes, we screened out a module (a gene set of interest) closely related to epilepsy that was prominently enriched in immune and inflammatory-related biological processes. Correlation analysis results suggest that pyroptosis-related molecules are closely related to this module, but have no obvious correlation with others. DEG analysis of molecules associated with pyroptosis suggests that most of the pyroptosis-related molecules had significantly increased expression after SE, such as IL1b, Casp1, Casp4, Pycard, Gsdmd, Nlrp3, Aim2, Mefv, Tlr2, Tlr3, and Tlr4. qRT-PCR and WB analysis confirmed that the mRNA and protein levels of GSDMD in the mouse hippocampus were significantly upregulated after SE. The mRNA expression of GSDME was not different between the epilepsy group and sham group. However, the WB results showed that the expression of full-length GSDME was decreased and GSDME-N-terminus were significantly increased after SE.ConclusionsOur study highlights that the pyroptosis pathway may be closely related to epilepsy. GSDMD and GSDME, the key executive molecules of pyroptosis, will help to understand the pathogenesis of epilepsy and aid in discovering new targets for anti-epileptic drug treatments.
Objectives:Anti-dipeptidyl–peptidase–like protein 6 (anti-DPPX) encephalitis an extremely rare type of immune-mediated encephalitis. This study aimed to analyze the electroclinical characteristics and prognosis of anti-DPPX encephalitis.Methods:Five patients (all male) with anti-DPPX encephalitis in East China from January 2016 to October 2021 was retrospective analyzed. Electroclinical features and outcomes were reviewed.Results:All five patients were male. The media age at disease onset was 32 years old with a range of 14–56 years. The main symptoms included psychiatric disturbances (2/5), amnesia (4/5), confusion (3/5), and seizures (3/5). Migrating myoclonus were identified in patient 4 with positive DPPX and contactin-associated protein-like 2 antibodies in blood. All of the patients had positive DPPX antibodies in serum. Only one of them had positive antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid. EEG showed diffuse slowing in two patients, but no epileptiform discharges were observed. Eighty percent (4/5) of the patients showed normal brain magnetic resonance imaging. After immunotherapy, improvement of neuropsychiatric symptoms from all of the patients was observed. Over a mean follow-up of 30.8 weeks, all of the patients had marked improvement in the modified Rankin Scale. To date, no tumors were not observed in any patients.Conclusions:Anti-DPPX encephalitis mainly presents as neuropsychiatric symptoms. Cooperation of DPPX antibodies and CASPR2 antibodies might have contributed to the migration of myoclonus in the patient 4. Prompt immunotherapy often results in improvement.
We investigated the existence and potential pathogenicity of a SLC9A6 splicing variant in a Chinese boy with Christianson Syndrome (CS), which was reported for the first time in China. Trio whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in the proband and his parents. Multiple computer prediction tools were used to evaluate the pathogenicity of the variant, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and cDNA sequencing were performed to verify the RNA splicing results. The patient presented with characteristic features of CS: global developmental delay, seizures, absent speech, truncal ataxia, microcephaly, ophthalmoplegia, smiling face and hyperkinesis with electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) detected in an electroencephalogram (EEG). A SLC9A6 splicing variant was identified by WES and complete skipping of exon 10 was confirmed by RT-PCR. This resulted in altered gene function and was predicted to be pathogenic. ESES observed early in the disease course is considered to be a significant feature of CS with the SLC9A6 variant. Combined genetic analysis at both the DNA and RNA levels is necessary to confirm the pathogenicity of this variant and its role in the clinical diagnosis of CS.