Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
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2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 4689
Kyu Young Choi ◽  
Sookyung Jang ◽  
Ganghyeon Seo ◽  
Su-Kyoung Park

The eustachian tube (E-tube) function is known to be related with sinusitis; however, the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on E-tube function is not clearly documented. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the function of the E-tube by using both subjective and objective tests in adult chronic sinusitis patients undergoing ESS, and to compare with those of the patients without sinusitis. Thirty adult patients who underwent ESS for treatment of chronic sinusitis and another thirty patients without sinusitis who underwent other nasal surgeries (septoplasty, rhinoplasty, or closed reduction) were evaluated and compared for E-tube function before and after three months of their surgeries. The E-tube function tests included the seven-item eustachian tube dysfunction questionnaire (ETDQ-7), Valsalva test, and inflation-deflation test that were compared preoperatively and postoperatively in both groups. Compared with the group without sinusitis, the ESS group showed significant improvement of E-tube function after surgery in the ETDQ-7 (p = 0.002), right Valsalva test (p = 0.015), right deflation test (p = 0.005), and left deflation test (p = 0.006). A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that ESS significantly improved E-tube function in the right Valsalva test in a univariate (p = 0.021) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.008), and E-tube function in the left deflation test in a univariate (p = 0.021) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.039). These findings indicate that E-tube function is significantly improved after ESS in adult sinusitis patients, and that the presence of sinusitis and implementation of ESS should be considered (if sinusitis is present) in managing patients with ear diseases that are affected by E-tube function.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 4683
Michał Jan Stasiowski ◽  
Izabela Szumera ◽  
Piotr Wardas ◽  
Seweryn Król ◽  
Jakub Żak ◽  

Inadequate intraoperative analgesia causes the deterioration of the condition of the surgical field (CSF) as a result of hemodynamic instability. Analgesia monitors are used to guide remifentanil) infusion to optimize intraoperative analgesia. The main aim of the current randomized controlled trial was to investigate the potential advantages of intraoperative analgesia monitoring using surgical Pleth index (SPI)- or pupillometry (PRD)-guided remifentanil administration for managing the volume of total intraoperative blood loss (TEIBL), CSF, and length of operation (LOP) in comparison with the standard practice in patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The 89 patients in our study were grouped as follows: 30 patients were assigned to the general analgesia (GA) group, 31 patients were assigned to the SPI group, and 28 patients were assigned to the PRD group. The speed of remifentanil infusion was accelerated by 50% when SPI, PRD, or BSS were increased by >15 points, >5%, or >2, respectively, in adjacent groups until their normalization. The SPI group showed significantly lower TEIBL in comparison to the GA group (165.2 ± 100.2 vs. 283.3 ± 193.5 mL; p < 0.05) and a higher mean arterial pressure (MAP; 73.9 ± 8 vs. 69.2 ± 6.8 mmHg; p < 0.05). In the PRD group, a shorter LOP compared with the GA group was observed (63.1 ± 26.7 min vs. 82.6 ± 33.1 min; p < 0.05). It was noted that the PRD group had a lower total remifentanil consumption than the SPI group (1.3 ± 1.4 vs. 1.8 ± 0.9 mg; p < 0.05). In ASA I-III patients undergoing ESS, intraoperative monitoring based on state entropy and SPI values can optimize the CSF and reduce TEIBL, whereas monitoring based on state entropy and PRD measurements can optimize the cost effectiveness of anesthetic drugs and the use of the operation room.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (10) ◽  
pp. 1062
Sven Becker ◽  
Phillipp Gonser ◽  
Magnus Haas ◽  
Martin Sailer ◽  
Matthias F. Froelich ◽  

Background and Objectives: Preoperative planning utilizing computed tomographies (CT) is of utmost importance in functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Frequently, no uniform documentation and planning structures are available to residents in training. Consequently, overall completeness and quality of operation planning may vary greatly. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a structured operation planning (SOP) approach on the report quality and user convenience during a 4-day sinus surgery course. Materials and Methods: Fifteen participant were requested to plan a FESS procedure based on a CT scan of the paranasal sinuses that exhibited common pathological features, in a conventional manner, using a free text. Afterwards, the participants reevaluated the same scans by means of a specifically designed structured reporting template. Two experienced ENT surgeons assessed the collected conventional operation planning (COP) and SOP methods independently with regard to time requirements, overall quality, and legibility. User convenience data were collected by utilizing visual analogue scales. Results: A significantly greater time expenditure was associated with SOPs (183 s vs. 297 s, p = 0.0003). Yet, legibility (100% vs. 72%, p < 0.0001) and overall completeness (61.3% vs. 22.7%, p < 0.0001) of SOPs was significantly superior to COPs. Additionally, description of highly relevant variants in anatomy and pathologies were outlined in greater detail. User convenience data delineated a significant preference for SOPs (VAS 7.9 vs. 6.9, p = 0.0185). Conclusions: CT-based planning of FESS procedures by residents in training using a structured approach is more time-consuming while producing a superior report quality in terms of detailedness and readability. Consequently, SOP can be considered as a valuable tool in the process of preoperative evaluations, especially within residency.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Masanobu Suzuki ◽  
Erich Vyskocil ◽  
Kazuhiro Ogi ◽  
Kotaro Matoba ◽  
Yuji Nakamaru ◽  

Objective: Traditionally, cadaveric courses have been an important tool in surgical education for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). The recent COVID-19 pandemic, however, has had a significant global impact on such courses due to its travel restrictions, social distancing regulations, and infection risk. Here, we report the world-first remote (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery) FESS training course between Japan and Australia, utilizing novel 3D-printed sinus models. We examined the feasibility and educational effect of the course conducted entirely remotely with encrypted telemedicine software.Methods: Three otolaryngologists in Hokkaido, Japan, were trained to perform frontal sinus dissections on novel 3D sinus models of increasing difficulty, by two rhinologists located in Adelaide, South Australia. The advanced manufactured sinus models were 3D printed from the Computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Using Zoom and the Quintree telemedicine platform, the surgeons in Adelaide first lectured the Japanese surgeons on the Building Block Concept for a three Dimensional understanding of the frontal recess. They in real time directly supervised the surgeons as they planned and then performed the frontal sinus dissections. The Japanese surgeons were asked to complete a questionnaire pertaining to their experience and the time taken to perform the frontal dissection was recorded. The course was streamed to over 200 otolaryngologists worldwide.Results: All dissectors completed five frontal sinusotomies. The time to identify the frontal sinus drainage pathway (FSDP) significantly reduced from 1,292 ± 672 to 321 ± 267 s (p = 0.02), despite an increase in the difficulty of the frontal recess anatomy. Image analysis revealed the volume of FSDP was improved (2.36 ± 0.00 to 9.70 ± 1.49 ml, p = 0.014). Questionnaires showed the course's general benefit was 95.47 ± 5.13 in dissectors and 89.24 ± 15.75 in audiences.Conclusion: The combination of telemedicine software, web-conferencing technology, standardized 3D sinus models, and expert supervision, provides excellent training outcomes for surgeons in circumstances when classical surgical workshops cannot be realized.

QJM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 114 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Adel Mekhael Fahmy ◽  
Ehab HamedAbdel Salam ◽  
Mai MohsenAbdel Aziz ◽  
Egyphillines EmadeldinRizk Taleb

Abstract Background Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) has been employed as a surgical intervention to treat chronic rhinosinusitis in patients with no response to drug therapy, during which the surgical vision may be greatly reduced by a small amount of bleeding. There by, the intraoperative controlled hypotension can improve the visibility. While excessive bleeding intraoperative cause serious complications in the postoperative period, including eye socket infections, visual acuity damage, meningeal infections, and other. Objective Induced hypotension limits intra operative (IO) blood loss provides better visibility of the surgical field and diminishes the incidence of major complications during Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). We aimed at comparing Nitroglycerine; Magnesium Sulfate and Dexmedetomidine for inducing controlled hypotension and evaluate narcotic used, mac of inhalational anesthesia, and Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) in the recovery and pre-anesthetic time in patients undergoing Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). Patients and Methods This study was conducted on 75 patients who underwent elective functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) who matched the inclusion criteria and were randomly allocated into 3 groups each containing 25 patients. The first group received loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1μg/kg infused over 10 min before induction of anesthesia then 0.7 μg/kg/h via syringe pump, second group received nitroglycerine infusion at a dose of 2μg/kg/min according to the response started after induction, intubation, positioning and sterilization of the patient and third group received a loading dose of magnesium sulfate 40 mg/kg over 10 minutes followed by an infusion 15mg/kg/h via syringe pump. Results The result of our study showed that dexmedetomidine, magnesium sulfate, or nitroglycerine successfully induced deliberate hypotension and were effective in providing good surgical field during FESS, but dexmedetomidine showed superior hemodynamic profile. Compared with nitroglycerine, both dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate offered the advantage of inherent analgesic and sedative effect. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine, magnesium sulfate, or nitroglycerine successfully induced deliberate hypotension and were effective in providing good surgical field during FESS, but dexmedetomidine showed superior hemodynamic profile. Compared with nitroglycerine, both dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate offered the advantage of inherent analgesic and sedative effect. Dexmedetomidine also showed shorter duration of surgery with less blood loss and favorable frommer score with more surgeon satisfaction. Dexmedetomidine showed longest time to 1st analgesic rescue in PACU comparing with magnesium sulfate and nitroglycerine. So, it’s advised to use dexmedetomidine to induce hypotension than magnesium sulfate and nitroglycerine. However, dexmedetomidine should be used with caution as it caused hypotension and bradycardia, t had sedative effect with low aldert score comparing with nitroglycerine and magnesium sulfate.

QJM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 114 (Supplement_1) ◽  
AbdElhamid AbdElhamid Al-Nashar ◽  
Waleed Farag Ezzat ◽  
Mohammed Abdelaleem Mohammed ◽  
Mohammed Al-Shahat Ibrahim Al-Bahet

Abstract Background Fungal sinusitis is generally classified into invasive and non invasive fungal sinusitis based on histological features, invasive fungal sinusitis divided into acute, chronic and chronic granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis. While non invasive fungal sinusitis include saprophytic fungal infestation, fungal ball, and fungus-related eosinophilic. Distinguishing invasive disease from noninvasive disease is important because the treatment and prognosis are different for each. AIM A systemic review of effective and safe method in management of different types of fungal sinusitis either by medical or surgical approaches or even combined. Be up to date with the different upcoming new modalities. Methodology A meta-analysis study is done to evaluate the medical and surgical outcomes of patients with invasive and noninvasive Fungal Sinusits. Results Finally, forty-five studies were included in the present systematic review and metaanalysis. Fifteen included studies (No = 539 patients) assessed different modalities for management of fungal ball, via classic endoscopic technique, Canine-fossa approach, gauze technique and osteoplastic approach for FB of the maxillary sinus. The results showed that functional endoscopic sinus surgery has led to success rate of 98.1%. Twenty included studies (No = 806 patients) have assessed the efficacy and safety of different modalities for the management of allergic fungal sinusitis via,Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Post-ESS Systemic steroids, Antifungals and immunotherapy. The results showed that ESS represents the firstline management strategy of AFRS, followed by aggressive medical therapies, the recurrence rate after postoperative steroids was 20.6%, postoperative antifungals was 40% and after immunotherapy was 9.1%. Ten studies (No = 327 patients) for Invasive Fungal Sinusitis.the results showed that combination of systematic antifungal therapy and aggressive surgical debridement are the treatment of choice. Conclusion FESS is the treatment of choice of fungal ball via classic endoscopic technique, Canine-fossa approach, gauze technique and osteoplastic approach. AFS treatment consists of surgical extirpation of the allergic mucin and polyps with maintenance of adequate sinus drainage followed by medical therapy consists of topical steroids, anti fungal therapy, Immunotherapy, and systemic corticosteroids. Treatment of invasive fungal sinusitis includes surgical resection of necrotic tissues, systemic antifungal therapy and reversal of immune dysfunction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (9) ◽  
pp. 2285-2288
Sadaf Raffat ◽  
Mustafa . ◽  
Nighat Arif ◽  
Usman Aslam ◽  
M Mubarik Ali ◽  

Aim: To compare endoscopic sinus surgery and continued medical treatment in refractory refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients regarding diseases specific quality of life measurement Study design: RCT (Randomized controlled trial) Place and duration of study: Study was conducted at ENT (Ear, nose and throat) department, Railway Hospital Rawalpindi. Study duration was one year (January 2018-Deecember 2018) Methods: A sample size of 22 patients was calculated using WHO calculator. Non probability consecutive sampling was used. A prior ethical approval and consent form was taken. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group A was given medical therapy while Group B comprised contain patients in whom medical therapy failed and had undergone endoscopic sinus surgery. Patients were followed for disease specific quality of life scores. Data was analyzed using SPSS version22. Chi-square and t test was applied. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Total of 22 refractory CRS patients were included in study. There were 10(45.5%) males and 12(54.5%) females. Mean age of refractory CRS patients was 33.4 years±6.2SD. Group A (continued medical therapy) N=11, had significantly high SNOTT -22 scores 60.6±7.1SD as compared to endoscopic sinus surgery 21±3.9SD (p=0.000). Group B (endoscopic sinus surgery) had significantly low endoscopic scores 2.7±0.3SD as compared to group A (continued medical therapy) 7.14±0.53SD (p=0.000). Endoscopic sinus surgery group showed significant reduction in work days lost 17.4±4.9SD as compared to continued medical therapy (Group A) 30.1±2.5SD (p=0.000). Conclusion: Endoscopic sinus surgery is an effective treatment option as compared to continued medical therapy with improved quality of life in refractory CRS patients (with reduced baseline disease specific quality of life). Keywords: Refractory chronic rhinosinusitis, endoscopic sinus surgery, quality of life

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