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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-004
Author(s):  
G. Priya

Background: Foramen of vesalius is an inconstant foramen that gives passage to an emissary vein that connects pterygoid venous plexus with cavernous sinus. It lies in the anteromedial side of the foramen ovale. Foramen ovale allows the passage for the mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve, the main site for the trigeminal rhizotomy. The presence and description of anatomical variations about the foramen of Vesalius is important during the surgical procedure on the trigeminal nerve which may injure the emissary vein in the foramen leading to intracranial bleeding. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to report the presence and to enlighten the anatomical variations of foramen vesalius which may serve as a guideline for surgeons. Methods: The study was conducted on 100 dry adult human skulls collected from the department of anatomy at Panimalar medical college hospital & research institute Chennai. The skulls were viewed both extracranially and intracranially to identify the presence of foramen of vesalius. The presence and variation of the foramen was noted and discussed. Result: A total of about 200 sides of 100 skulls were studied. Among them 20% of the skull showed presence of foramen of Vesalius bilaterally, 25% unilaterally and one particular skull showed doubled opening on the left side with the presence of a bony septum. This is a rare variation which was less documented in the literature. Conclusion: The knowledge of variations in foramen of Vesalius may help the surgeons for safer planning and execution of the trigeminal rhizotomy technique.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 22-25
Author(s):  
Kavita Sinha ◽  
Ram Das ◽  
Homnath Adhikari

Introduction: Molar pregnancies represent a significant burden of disease on the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic diseases. Vaginal bleeding being the most common occasionally, molar pregnancy is complicated by hyperthyroidism, which may require treatment. Aims: To determine thyroid function test and association of hyperthyroidism among the cases of molar pregnancy. Methods: This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nepalgunj Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur. Sixty cases of molar pregnancy were included during the study period from February 2020 to January 2021.Patients having history of known thyroid disorders were excluded. Results: Prevalence of molar pregnancy in our study was 5.4 per thousand pregnancies in our hospital. Molar pregnancy and hyperthyroidism, both were common in the age group of 21-35 years. Hyperthyroidism was present in 10% patients. Enlarged thyroid was seen in 3.3%, tremor was present in 3.3%, and palpitation in 21.5%. Five (8.3%) patients with hyperthyroidism were underweight. Majority of patients with hyperthyroidism, beta humanchorionic gonadotrophhin level was more than three lakhs and it was mostly associated with complete hydatidiform mole compared to partial hydatidiform mole. Thyroid storm was not experienced in any of the patients. Conclusion: The rate of molar pregnancy is high. Hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy is not uncommon. High levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, complete hydatiform mole are directly associated with hyperthyroidism. Awareness of this condition is important for diagnosis and treatment to prevent life threatening complications.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 89-91
Author(s):  
Kamar Jahan ◽  
Binod Kumar Mahaseth

Introduction: Foetal death at any stage of pregnancy is not just a tragic event but also a more traumatic for the mental well-being of a mother. It is one of the most wrenching events in the field of obstetrics. Aims: The study was done to determine the probable risk factors of intrauterine foetal death and role of antenatal care in its prevention. Methods: The study was conducted  in Obstetrics and Gynecology department at Nepalgunj Medical college from July 2018 to July 2020 .Inclusion criteria were  intrauterine fetal death  of >28 weeks of gestation and baby weighing  1000 grams or more . An exclusion criterion was molar pregnancy. Results: There were 115(3.52%) intrauterine fetal death during the study period, making it 35 per 1000 cases. In 17(14.78%) the cause of intrauterine fetal death was not known. The other common associated risk factors were prematurity in 14(12.17%) and hypertension in 13(11.30%). Similarly anemia and antepartum hemorrhage were seen in 13(11.30%) each. 11(9.56%) patients had oligohydramnios. Mal presentation was found in 8(6.95%) patients while polyhydromnios in 6(5.21%).The commonest age range in whom intrauterine fetal death was seen was 20-30 (73.90%). 28 (24.34%) patients were at preterm pregnancy ranging between 28-30 weeks whereas 17(14.78) intrauterine fetal death occured at  32-34 weeks. 77 foetuses were preterm and their birth weight was between 1 - 1.5 kg  with the mean wt of  1175.73 gms. Conclusion: Intrauterine fetal death is still common inspite of the improving awareness in importance of regular antenatal care. In majority, the cause of intrauterine fetal death is still unknown. However, where the cause was known prematurity was the commonest.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-46
Author(s):  
Smita Jha

Introduction: Pityriasis versicolor is superficial fungal infection. Topical drugs are often effective in treatment of limited disease while systemic drugs are more suitable in extensive cases. The systemic triazole drugs, itraconazole and fluconazole have shown promising results at different doses. Aims: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral fluconazole combined with ketoconazole shampoo and oral itraconazole in the treatment of Pityriasis versicolor. Methods: The study was conducted at department of Dermatology at Nepalgunj Medical College from March 2019 to February 2020. Total 100 patients of both genders with Pityriasis versicolor were randomly allocated into two groups with 50 patients in each group. Patients in Group I received oral fluconazole 300mg a week for two consecutive weeks along with ketoconazole 2% shampoo twice weekly for two weeks while those in Group II received  itraconazole 200mg daily for one week. Efficacy was assessed in terms of negative fungal hyphae. The drug is considered safe if no patients were withdrawn for clinical adverse effects or laboratory abnormalities. Results: In this study age ranged from 18 to 50 years with mean age of 31.1 years in Group I and 31.92 years in Group II. Efficacy was seen in 78% of Group I patients as compared to 54% in Group II patients at two weeks and 94% in Group I and 90% in Group II at four weeks. No significant adverse effects were reported in any of the group. Conclusion: Fluconazole along with ketoconazole shampoo is more effective than itraconazole in treatment of pityriasis versicolor with minimal side effects, at lesser cost.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 51-54
Author(s):  
Dwarika Prasad Bajgai ◽  
Bela Agrawal ◽  
Abadhesh Yadav

Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic oral disease characterized by progressive buildup of constricting collagen bands in the cheeks and adjacent structures of the mouth due to chewing of areca nut. This can severely restrict mouth opening and tongue movement causing pain and burning sensation in the mouth. Aims: This study evaluates the efficacy of pentoxifylline in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Methods: A hospital-based study, conducted in the dental outpatient department of Nepalgunj Medical College from October 2019 to September 2020. Forty-nine patients who were diagnosed histopathologically with oral submucous fibrosis were included. The patients were divided into two groups. In group A, patients were given, 200 mg thrice daily for first 30 days, then dose hiked to 400 mg thrice daily for two more months. Group B patients received treatment with multi-vitamin capsules (B-complex one capsule before sleep daily) for three months. All patients were followed up for six months and were assessed for maximum inter-incisor opening, pain on opening of mouth and burning sensation. Results: There was no statistical difference in mouth opening at baseline and first follow up. The mouth opening was significantly more in group A compared to group B from second follow up which persisted till third follow up (p <0.05). Pain and burning sensation significantly reduced in group A compared to group B from 2nd follow up which persisted till 3rd follow up (p <0.05). Few patients had nausea, dyspepsia and vomiting during treatment in group A which resolved within a few days without the need for cessation of the drug. Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms of oral submucous fibrosis like mouth opening, pain and burning sensation, thereby improving the quality of life of the affected individuals.


Author(s):  
Shivek Mohan ◽  
Ankit Panwar ◽  
Bharat Thakur ◽  
Ved Kumar Sharma

Background: To evaluate efficacy of laparoscopic transperitoneal pyelolithotomy for management of renal pelvic stones in term of postoperative hospital stay Methods: This study has been conducted in the Department of General surgery, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla on selected patients of Renal pelvis stones admitted in institution Results: Mean hospital stay was 6.66 days in laparoscopic group and it was 8 days in laparoscopic completed by open method. Maximum no. of patients was discharged within 5 days.  6 (75 %) patients returned to normal activity in less than 30 days which included only successful laparoscopic group and 2 patients returned to normal activity in 40 days which included lap completed by open group. Conclusion: In the present study of Laparoscopic Transperitoneal Pyelolithotomy at Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, the procedure showed a definite decrease hospital stay, early return to activity than who have undergone open surgery Keywords: Laparoscopic Transperitoneal Pyelolithotomy, Pelvic stone, Hospital stay.


Author(s):  
Bharat Thakur ◽  
Ankit Panwar ◽  
Shivek Mohan ◽  
Ved Kumar Sharma

Background: To evaluate complication of laparoscopic transperitoneal pyelolithotomy for management of renal pelvic stones Methods: This study has been conducted in the Department of General surgery, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla on selected patients of Renal pelvis stones admitted in institution Results: There were no major postoperative complications. Two patient developed mild low grade fever which subsided on oral antipyretic medication. One patient had a cough and one patient had ileus. Conclusion: We concluded that there were no major intraoperative or postoperative complications were seen in our study. Keywords: Laparoscopic Transperitoneal Pyelolithotomy, Pelvic stone, Complication


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 97-100
Author(s):  
Piush Kanodia ◽  
Arun Kumar Verma ◽  
Sumit Adhikari

Introduction: Small for gestational age (SGA) refers to birth weight of neonates less than 10th percentile for gestational age or 2nd standard deviation below the population norms on the growth charts. Aims: To identify common risk factors and common morbidities for small for gestational age babies. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study and it has been conducted at Department of pediatrics, Nepalgunj Medical college which is a tertiary level teaching hospital located in western part of Nepal. All term small for gestational age neonates born during study period from January 2020 to December 2020 were included. Detailed baseline demographic and clinical profile has been collected and recorded in the predesigned Proforma. Results: The most common risk factors associated with small for gestational age babies in our study were maternal hypertension (14.6%) , maternal GDM(9.6%), Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in 1st or 2nd trimester of pregnancy, maternal anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypothyroidism and congenital heart disease. The most common short term complications associated with Small for gestational age babies were hypoglycemia and Meconium aspiration syndrome. Conclusion: The most common risk factors associated with Small for gestational age  babies in our study were maternal hypertension, maternal Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Urinary Tract Infection  in 1st or 2nd trimester of pregnancy, maternal anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypothyroidism and congenital heart disease. The most common short term complications associated with Small for gestational age  babies were hypoglycemia and Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS).


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-4
Author(s):  
Naresh Man Shrestha

Introduction: Urinary bladder stone occupies only 5% of all urinary tract stone. Various techniques have been used for the management of bladder stone. Open Cystolithotomy is the traditional treatment but a percutaneous approach has been also in practice. Aims: To confirm the best options between open cystolithotomy and percutaneous cystolithotripsy for the treatment of bladder stone. Methods: It is a prospective hospital based study from May 2019 to January 2021 in Nepalgunj Medical College. Total 42 patients with inclusion criteria were divided into two groups.  Group I was allocated to 21 patients who were treated with open cystolithotomy while Group II were allocated to 21 patients who were treated with percutaneous cystolithotripsy. Two groups were compared for stone free rate, mean hospital stay, mean postoperative scar, mean operation time and rate of post-operative complications. Results: The stone free rate in Group I was 100 % and in Group II was 90.47 %. Mean Operation time was in Group I and Group II were 40.09+ 2.48  minutes and 31.38+15.65 days,  respectively with p<0.05. Mean hospital stay was significantly low in Group II (3.71+1.87 days ) when compared to Group I (7.67+ 2.12 days) with p<0.001. Mean scar length of Group I (5.466+2.9 cm) with respect to Group II (1.04+0.09) was significantly long (p<0.01). Rate of complications were not significantly different between two groups (p>0.5). Conclusion: For management of urinary bladder stones sized up to 4 cm, both open cystolithotomy and percutaneous cystolithotripsy are effective, with a low incidence of complications. However, comparing the surgery time, hospital stay, length of scar between two procedures, percutaneous cystolithotripsy procedure is more beneficial for treatment of urinary bladder stone.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-42
Author(s):  
Binod Kumar Yadav ◽  
Ram Chandra Choudhary ◽  
Gaurav Jung Shah ◽  
Saharoj Siddiqui

Introduction: The corona virus disease-19 pandemic is an ongoing global health crisis and the greatest challenge we have been facing right now in the most peculiar ways. It has caused huge loss of lives and has severely affected the global economy and financial markets. Vaccines are a new critical tool to fight this voracious battle. They have been released in several parts of the world. Although the safety and efficacy of these vaccines have been discussed, we know very little about the post-vaccination experience outside clinical trial situations. Adequate information about the effects of the vaccine can aware the public remove misconceptions and increase vaccine acceptability. Aims: To know the percentage of Covishield vaccine coverage and its adverse effects among the staffs of Nepalgunj Medical College. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the vaccinated 91 out of 116 staff members of Nepalgunj Medical College (NGMC), Baijanath Rural Municipality-1, Banke. Results: Out of 91 persons, 15.4%(14) developed headache, 20%(18) developed fever, and 8.7%(17) developed body aches. Of those who developed post-vaccination side effects 47%(16) of the persons were from age group 36-55years,17%(1) of them between age group 55-65 years, and none above 65 years developed fever. 20%(13) of total male and 35%(5) of total female developed fever within 96 hours after receiving first dose of Covishield AstraZeneca vaccine. Conclusion: Most of the study subjects reported milder side effects which lasted for less than 5 days. No casualties were reported. Local pain and swelling at the injection site, headache and fever were the most common side effects. The side effects were more common in younger individuals and women.


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