Annals of International medical and Dental Research
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2395-2822, 2395-2814

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 310-317
Author(s):  
Debasish Dutta

Background: NAFLD is a condition defined by excessive fat accumulation in the form of triglycerides (steatosis) in the liver (> 5% of hepatocytes histologically). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasingly being recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality among 15-40% of the general population. Aim of the study: To evaluate the clinical profile of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with metabolic syndrome.Methods:The present cross-sectional, retro-spective study was conducted as outdoor patient basis in the Department of Medicine, Jashore medical college hospital & a private diagnostic centre, Jashore.. A total of 74 cases were included for the study. All patients in the study underwent routine investigations including complete blood counts, blood sugar, liver function tests, HBsAg, anti-HCV, lipid profile andUSG of whole abdomen. The data was collected during OPD treatment and was recorded in predesigned and pretested proforma and analyzed.Results:Mean age of the patient was 53.70±7.22 years. On physical examination findings showed the mean BMI was 27.6±4.39 kg/m2, mean waist circumference was 74.22±7.44 cm. Mean diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) was 92.87±6.25 and mean systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 132.0±18.17. Maximum 52% patients had triglycerides >150 mg/dl while low serum HDL level was seen in 37% patients and increased waist circumference was found in 32% patients. Altered ALT ≥41 IU was observed in 10 (62.50%) of Grade II of patients with NAFLD with metabolic syndrome. Central obesity was observed in 12 (75.00%) of Grade II patients with NAFLD with metabolic syndrome. While 14 (87.50%) Grade II of patients with NAFLD with metabolic syndrome showed impaired fasting glucose (>110 mg/dl). Hypertriglyceridemia (>150 mg/dl) in 12 (70.58%) seen in Grade I of patients with NAFLD without metabolic syndrome.Conclusion:Higher prevalence of all the components of metabolic syndrome in cases of NAFLD was observed. It can be concluded that symptoms and signs of NAFLD are non-specific and occur later in the course of the disease hence the physician should have a high index of suspicion in order to detect NAFLD early in the course of the disease.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 12-23
Author(s):  
Poonam Ohri ◽  
Shreeji Goya ◽  
Niveditha C ◽  
Manasi Kohli

Background: Knee is one of the major joints involved in kinesis. With increasing involvement in sports related activities especially in young people, Trauma related knee pathologies have increased. An accurate diagnosis regarding the type and extent of injuries is essential for early operative as well as non-operative treatment. Methods:This prospective study included total of 82 cases. The patients were referred to the department of Radiodiagnosis from indoor and outdoor departments of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital, Amritsar with suspicion of internal derangement of the knee and with history of knee trauma.Results:The most common age group involved was young males between 15-34 years. In all age groups most of the patients were males. Most common ligament to be injured was Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). Partial tears were more common than complete tears. Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) tears were less common. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) tears outnumbered Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) tears and grade 2 tears were more common in both. Among the meniscal injuries Medial Meniscus (MM) tears were more common than LM and grade 3 signal was more common in both. Most of the patellar retinaculum injuries were associated with Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL tears.Conclusions:Post-traumatic pre-arthroscopic MR imaging evaluation has proved to be cost-effective. MRI is an accurate imaging modality complementing the clinical evaluation and providing a global intra-articular and extra-articular assessment of the knee.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 168-174
Author(s):  
Sidharth Sraban Routray

Background: Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum Block (TQLB) is a newer modality for postoperative pain management. But, its efficacy after laparoscopic colorectal surgery is little researched. The aim of our trial was to access the analgesic efficacy of TQLB in colorectal surgery.Methods:This study was done in 64 patients posted for colorectal surgery who were divided into two groups of 32 each. TQLB was given bilaterally in group RQ with 20 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine and in group SQ with 20 ml saline. Patients were operated under general anesthesia and were examined for pain at different time points postoperatively. Time required for first analgesic demand was our primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were total rescue analgesia (paracetamol) required in 24 hrs, pain scores, nausea, vomiting, sedation and any other complications.Results:The time required for first analgesic demand was 3.9± 0.8hrs in RQ group and 0.1± 0.2 hrs in group SQ which was statistically significant. The total paracetamol consumption in 24 hours was1.2± 0.4 gm in group RQ and 2.9± 0.7gm in group SQ ,the difference being remarkable.Conclusion:Transmuscular quadratus lumborum block can produce quality analgesia after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. TQLB not only improves the visual analogue scale (VAS) score but also decreases the rescue analgesic consumption without any complications.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 253-260
Author(s):  
Manpreet Singh

Background: Fractures of the proximal femur, including fractures affecting the pertrochanteric region, have become a public health problem. Owing to aging of the population, we have to operate on even more elderly patients who sometimes present with significant co-morbidities. Although conventional implants have given good results in stable peritrochanteric fractures, proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP) which has been recently introduced is better suited for comminuted, unstable pertrochanteric fractures and osteoporotic bones. In PF-LCP, bone-implantconstruct so formed is mechanically stable and fixation failure due to screw loosening in osteoporotic bone can be reduced. Materials &Methods: This prospective study was conducted in our institute and was approved by local ethical committee. Twenty-five consecutive patients of either sex with age more than 60 years (range, 60-84) having pertrochanteric fractures were operated upon with PFLCP. A.O classification was followed in the study and Singh’s index for osteoporosis was calculated. Operating time, blood loss and any technical difficulty with the implant were recorded. Patients were followed clinically and radiologically for union at fracture site and implant-related complications for a period of 24 months. The Harris Hip Score was used to document hip functions at final follow-up. Observations: Amongst the 25 patients, the average operation time in our study was 66.60±10.57 minutes. The average radiological union was 3.40±0.63 months (13.6 weeks). Average time for full weight bearing was 13.12±1.90 weeks. There were two cases of wound infection, one case of coxa vara and one case of a proximal screw back-out. There was no case of plate lift or screw breakage. There was no case of non-union. Conclusion: The PFLCP can be a feasible alternative to the treatment of peritrochanteric fractures. Treatment with PFLCP can provide good-to-excellent healing in osteoporotic bones having comminuted and unstable peritrochanteric fractures, with a limited occurrence of complications.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 106-116
Author(s):  
Rakesh Kumar Chanania ◽  
Lakshay Goyal ◽  
Sanjeev Gupta ◽  
Gagandeep Chanania ◽  
Sahil Heer

Background: A prospective study was conducted on 100 patients of perforation peritonitis: To find out the incidence of gastro intestinal perforation in various age groups, sex, riral or urban, socio economic status, To find out the various causes and sites of gastra intestinal perforartions, To determine various types of procedures being done to treat gastro intestinal perforations.Methods:The study population consisted of 100 patients of perforation peritonitis admitted at surgical wards of Rajindra Hospital, Patiala. Patients underwent necessary investigations such as Blood counts, biochemical analysis and urine analysis. X-ray Abdomen and chest / USG Abdomen/Pelvis CT-Abdomen (as and when required). All diagnosed patients were subjected to surgery. In all cases, operative findings and postoperative course were followed up for three months. Final outcome was evaluated on the basis of clinical, operative and radiological findings. In pre-pyloric and duodenal perforation, GRAHAM’S PATCH REPAIR carried out. In Ileal and Jejunal perforations, primary closure or exteriorization done depending upon the condition of the gut and duration of the symptoms. The patient outcome was assessed by duration of hospital stay, wound infection, wound dehiscence, leakage/entero-cutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal collection/abscess, ileostomy related complications and reoperation. Wound infection was graded as per SSI grading.Results:Most common age group for perforation was 21-40 years (50%) followed by 41-60 (33%) years in present study. Mean age of the patients is 37.91 + 13.15 years with male predominance (78%) in our study. 4% of the patients were of upper socio-economic status while 32% of the patients were of middle and 64% of the patients were of lower socio-economic status.Abdominal pain was seen in 100% of the patients while abdominal distension was present in 69% of the patients. Nausea/Vomiting was seen in 61% of the patients while Fever and Constipation was seen in 53% and 86% of the patients respectively. Diarrhoea was seen in 3% of the patients. Tenderness, guarding & rigidity, distension, obliteration of liver dullness and evidence of free fluid were present in 100% of the patients. Bowel sounds were not detected in all the patients. Most common perforations were Duodena(37%), Ileal (25%), Gastric (25%) followed by Appendicular (9%), Jejunal (4%) and Colonic perforation (2%). The most common etiology of gastrointestinal perforations was Peptic ulcer followed by Typhoid, Appendicitis, Tuberculosis, Trauma, Malignancy and non-specific infection.In Gastric perforations, Peptic ulcer was the most common cause of perforation followed by Trauma. In Ileal perforations, Typhoid was the most common cause of perforation followed by Tuberculosis and non-specific infection. In Appendicular perforations, most common cause was Appendicitis. In Jejunal perforations, most common cause was Trauma. In Colonic perforations, most common cause was Malignancy.Conclusions:The incidence of gastrointestinal perforations was common in 21-40 years age group followed by 41-60 years age group with male preponderance in our study. The most common site of perforations was Gastro-duodenal followed by Ileal perforations and the most common cause for these perforations was peptic ulcer followed by typhoid. The most common procedure done to treat gastrointestinal perforations was primary closure, resection and anastomosis, appendectomy and stoma formation. However, small sample size and short follow up period were the limitations of the present study.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 124-131
Author(s):  
Paraag Kumar

Background: Carcinoma esophagus is the 6th most common cancer in India with an incidence of 5.04% It most commonly affects older age individuals, with incidence peaking in seventh and eighth decades of life. Adenocarcinoma (AC) and Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the two main histological variants. Our aim was to study the risk factors, clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with Esophageal Cancer from two tertiary care centres located in North India.Methods:This was a retrospective study carried in departments of gastroenterology of two tertiary care hospitals North India. Data was collected from respective institutes for the previous 1 year i.e. from 1st October 2020 to 30th September 2021. All patients presenting to Gastroenterology OPD or emergency with dysphagia who were diagnosed as having Carcinoma esophagus were included in the study.Results:A total of 106 patients were included in this study. There were 44 females & 66 males. The most common presenting complaint was Dysphagia (48%) followed by Loss of weight (26.4%), Vomiting (in 23.6%) and Odynophagia (22.6%). Involvement of the lower one third of the oesophagus was the most common (37.7%). SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma) was the most common type of oesophageal carcinoma in this study, seen approximately in 80% of cases.Conclusion:Our study from North India suggested poor oral hygiene as a strong risk for carcinoma esophagus Males were more commonly affected and SCC was the predominant variant.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 350-356
Author(s):  
Towhida Naheen

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or benign prostatic hypertrophy, is a histologic diagnosis status characterized by proliferation of the ‘glandular elements’ of the prostate, which may lead to an enlarged prostate gland. In many studies, people over the age of 40 years found as the most vulnerable for BPH. Ultrasonography is a prominent method to determine prostate volume or size. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prostate volume measurement for the Bangladeshi population over the age of 40 years by ultrasonography.Methods:This prospective, observational study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Chattogram Medical College Hospital, Chattogram, Bangladesh during the period from January 2019 to December 2020. In total 157 suspected patients of benign prostatic hyperplasia were selected as the study population. All patients were clinically diagnosed for BPH, based on the present prostate symptoms and digital rectal examination. To measure the prostate volume, abdominal ultrasonography was performed for all the patients. After enucleation, another ultrasonogram was performed for all the patients to measure the existing sizes of the prostates of the patients. All the data were processed, analyzed, and disseminated by MS-word and SPSS programs as per need.Results:Finally, in this study in analyzing the volumes of the prostates of the participants according to the abdominal ultra-sonographic reports of pre-operative stage we observed, in 9%, 34%, 31%, 30%, 21% and 32% patients, the prostate sizes (In cc) were <20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, 81-100 and >100 cc respectively. On the other hand, after enucleation, in 11.46%, 24.20%, 28.66%, 27.39%, 7.01% and 1.27% patients, the prostate sizes (In cc) were found <20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, 81-100 and >100 cc respectively. The mean changes of prostate sizes between pre- and post-operative stages among the participant was not significant where the P value was found 0.464.Conclusion:The findings of this study support the applications of abdominal ultrasonographic evaluation for suspected benign prostatic hyperplasia patients to know about the exact volumes of their prostates for selecting the appropriate surgical approach.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 325-332
Author(s):  
Shaoli Sarker

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between sleep patterns and behavioral difficulties in children with ASD using sleep disturbance treatments. Methods: We selected a total 41 children with sleep disorders as study population. The sleep services (behavioral sleep management techniques) were given by the child development center team of Dhaka Shishu Hospital comprising of physician , developmental therapist and psychologist. Children were split into eight groups and two gender divisions based on their age, and they were then studied over a period of 6 months . Sleep disorders were investigated both before and after intervention. Results: The results revealed that the children’s sleep dysfunction improved from before, with the lowest improvement percentage decreasing from 62.9 percent to 51.8 percent and the greatest improvement percentage increasing from 100 percent to 59.2 percent, whereas a sleep problem showed no change at all (sleepwalking). Conclusion: The study has tried and succeeded to an extent to intervene in the sleep dysfunction process of children with ASD in a tertiary care hospital. However, there is still much to learn about the clinical efficacy of these types of behavioral interventions in children with ASD who have sleep disruption.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 268-273
Author(s):  
Kuldip Kumar

Background: In a country like India, the prisoner cells are not well structured. For instance prisons are known to be a high risk environment for infections like tuberculosis (TB), HIV, HCV, HBV etc. due to overcrowding, low levels of nutrition, poor infection control and lack of accessible healthcare services. This study is an effort to know about the pattern of infections in custodial death cases detected during post mortem examination. Aims and Objectives: To determine the common infections and to know the mortality caused by infections among prisoners in custody, people in police custody and mentally ill patients in mental health institute in Punjab.Methods:This cross sectional study of 100 cases of custodial deaths from 1st Jan 2019 to 4thMay 2021, was carried out in the Forensic Medicine department in collaboration with department of Microbiology, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar.Results:Klebsiella Pneumoniae (37.5%) is more common in age group of 10-30 years while Staphylococcus Aureus (35.9%) infection was more common in the age group of 31 to 50 years. Incidence of positive growth of infections was slightly more in female inmates (76.9%) as compared to the males (75.9%). Inmates from urban area background showed more growth of Staphylococcus Aureus (35.7%) than from rural area background(25%).Conclusions:Timely medical diagnosis and treatment of each prisoner with availability of good doctors are the important issues relating to the healthcare of the individuals in custody.


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