Randomised Controlled Trial
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Trials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Nick Midgley ◽  
Karen Irvine ◽  
Beth Rider ◽  
Sarah Byford ◽  
Antonella Cirasola ◽  

Abstract Background The needs of children in care are a government priority, yet the evidence base for effective interventions to support the emotional wellbeing of children in care is lacking. Research suggests that supporting the carer-child relationship, by promoting the carer’s reflective parenting, may be an effective approach to improving the wellbeing of these children. Methods The study comprises a definitive, superiority, two-armed, parallel, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial, with embedded process evaluation and economic evaluation, and an internal pilot, to evaluate the effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness, of the Reflective Fostering Programme. Randomisation is at the individual level using a 1:1 allocation ratio. The study is being conducted in local authority sites across England, and is targeted at foster carers (including kinship carers) looking after children aged 4 to 13. Consenting participants are randomly allocated to the Reflective Fostering Programme (intervention arm) in addition to usual support or usual support alone (control arm). The primary outcome is behavioural and emotional wellbeing of the child 12 months post-baseline, and secondary outcomes include the following: foster carer’s level of stress, quality of life, reflective capacity, compassion fatigue and burnout, placement stability, the quality of the child-carer relationship, child’s capacity for emotional regulation, and achievement of personalised goals set by the carer. Discussion A feasibility study has indicated effectiveness of the Programme in improving the child-carer relationship and emotional and behavioural wellbeing of children in care. This study will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of implementing the Reflective Fostering Programme as an additional aid to the support already available to local authority foster carers. Trial registration ISRCTN 70832140.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Ahmad Farouk Musa ◽  
Jeswant Dillon ◽  
Mohamed Ezani Md Taib ◽  
Alwi Mohamed Yunus ◽  
Abdul Rais Sanusi ◽  

Abstract Introduction Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with poorer outcomes, increased resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality. Its pathogenesis is initiated by systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. It is hypothesised that a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent such as tocotrienol, an isomer of Vitamin E, could reduce or prevent POAF. Aims The aim of this study is to determine whether a potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agent, Tocovid, a tocotrienol-rich capsule, could reduce the incidence of POAF and affect the mortality and morbidity as well as the duration of ICU, HDU and hospital stay. Methods This study was planned as a prospective, randomised, controlled trial with parallel groups. The control group received placebo containing palm superolein while the treatment group received Tocovid capsules. We investigated the incidence of POAF, the length of hospital stay after surgery and the health-related quality of life. Results Recruitment commenced in January 2019 but the preliminary results were unblinded as the study is still ongoing. Two-hundred and two patients have been recruited out of a target sample size of 250 as of January 2021. About 75% have completed the study and 6.4% were either lost during follow-up or withdrew; 4% of participants died. The mean age group was 61.44 ± 7.30 years with no statistical difference between the groups, with males having a preponderance for AF. The incidence of POAF was 24.36% and the mean time for developing POAF was 55.38 ± 29.9 h post-CABG. Obesity was not a predictive factor. No statistically significant difference was observed when comparing left atrial size, NYHA class, ejection fraction and the premorbid history. The mean cross-clamp time was 71 ± 34 min and the mean bypass time was 95 ± 46 min, with no difference between groups. There was a threefold increase in death among patients with POAF (p = 0.008) and an increase in the duration of ICU stay (p = 0.01), the total duration of hospital stay (p = 0.04) and reintubation (p = 0.045). Conclusion A relatively low incidence rate of POAF was noted although the study is still ongoing. It remains to be seen if our prophylactic intervention using Tocovid would effectively reduce the incidence of POAF. Clinical Registration Number: US National Library of Medicine. Clinical Trials - NCT03807037. Registered on 16th January 2019. Link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03807037

BMJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. e066952
Annette Mollerup ◽  
Marius Henriksen ◽  
Sofus Christian Larsen ◽  
Anita Selmer Bennetzen ◽  
Mette Kildevæld Simonsen ◽  

Abstract Objective To determine whether positive expiratory pressure (PEP) by PEP flute self-care is effective in reducing respiratory symptoms among community dwelling adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection and early stage covid-19. Design Non-drug, open label, randomised controlled trial. Setting Capital Region and Region Zealand in Denmark from 6 October 2020 to 26 February 2021. Participants Community dwelling adults, able to perform self-care, with a new SARS-CoV-2 infection (verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests) and symptoms of covid-19. Intervention Participants were randomised to use PEP flute self-care in addition to usual care or have usual care only. Randomisation was based on permuted random blocks in a 1:1 ratio, stratified for sex and age (<60 or ≥60 years). The PEP self-care group was instructed to use a PEP flute three times per day during the 30 day intervention. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was a change in symptom severity from baseline to day 30, as assessed by the self-reported COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) assessment test (CAT), which was adjusted for baseline values and stratification factors. Participants completed the CAT test questionnaire every day online. Secondary outcomes were self-reported urgent care visits due to covid-19, number of covid-19 related symptoms, and change in self-rated health, all within 30-days’ follow-up. Results 378 participants were assigned to the PEP flute self-care intervention (n=190) or usual care only (n=188). In the PEP self-care group, the median number of days with PEP flute use was 21 days (interquartile range 13-25). For the intention-to-treat population, a group difference was observed in changes from baseline in CAT scores of −1.2 points (95% confidence interval −2.1 to −0.2; P=0.017) in favour of the PEP flute self-care group. At day 30, the PEP flute self-care group also reported less chest tightness, less dyspnoea, more vigour, and higher level of daily activities, but these differences were small, and no consistent effects were seen on the secondary outcomes. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions In community dwelling adults with early covid-19, PEP flute self-care had a significant, yet marginal and uncertain clinical effect on respiratory symptom severity, as measured by CAT scores. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04530435 .

Lieke M. van den Heuvel ◽  
Yvonne M. Hoedemaekers ◽  
Annette F. Baas ◽  
Marieke J. H. Baars ◽  
J. Peter van Tintelen ◽  

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