randomised controlled
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Omar M. E. Ali

Abstract Fibromyalgia is a debilitating chronic condition which poses a therapeutic challenge to the clinician. With a large backlog in patient flow subsequent to the COVID-19 pandemic and rising numbers of patients with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) presenting with fibromyalgia-like clinical features, there is an increasingly pressing need to identify broad cost-effective interventions. Low levels of vitamin D have previously been reported in patients with fibromyalgia, though any causative link has been difficult to establish. A systematic literature review on the association between vitamin D deficiency and fibromyalgia was performed examining retrospective evidence both for and against an association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and fibromyalgia and evaluating the therapeutic benefit from supplementation. A group of six studies were selected based on relevance, use of controls, quality of research and citations. Four primary studies assessing the prevalence of VDD in fibromyalgia patients versus controls were evaluated with a total 3,496 subjects. Three included females only and one larger study assessed males. Two (n = 313) concluded the presence of a statistically significant association, and two (n = 161) found none. Two randomised controlled trials assessing the effect of vitamin D supplementation in a total of 80 subjects found conflicting results, with pain reduction in one and none in the other. It is likely there exists an association between VDD deficiency and fibromyalgia in a large subset of patients, although establishing primary causation is difficult. There is a need for larger randomised controlled trial designs with more effective comparison with healthy subjects and control for confounding factors. Given VDD is a major problem in the general population, we recommend supplementation be recommended by healthcare professionals to fibromyalgia patients for the purpose of maintaining bone health given their potentially increased susceptibility to developing deficiency and its sequelae.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Jan Maláska ◽  
Jan Stašek ◽  
František Duška ◽  
Martin Balík ◽  
Jan Máca ◽  

Abstract Background Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected millions of people worldwide. In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in need of oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, dexamethasone 6 mg per day is currently recommended. However, the dose of 6 mg of dexamethasone is currently being reappraised and may miss important therapeutic potential or may prevent potential deleterious effects of higher doses of corticosteroids. Methods REMED is a prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial testing the superiority of dexamethasone 20 mg (dexamethasone 20 mg on days 1–5, followed by dexamethasone 10 mg on days 6–10) vs 6 mg administered once daily intravenously for 10 days in adult patients with moderate or severe ARDS due to confirmed COVID-19. Three hundred participants will be enrolled and followed up for 360 days after randomization. Patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio into one of the two treatment arms. The following stratification factors will be applied: age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, CRP levels and trial centre. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days after randomisation. The secondary endpoints are mortality from any cause at 60 days after randomisation; dynamics of the inflammatory marker, change in WHO Clinical Progression Scale at day 14; and adverse events related to corticosteroids and independence at 90 days after randomisation assessed by the Barthel Index. The long-term outcomes of this study are to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days. The study will be conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) of ten university hospitals in the Czech Republic. Discussion We aim to compare two different doses of dexamethasone in patients with moderate to severe ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation regarding efficacy and safety. Trial registration EudraCT No. 2020-005887-70. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04663555. Registered on December 11, 2020

npj Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Paola Villanueva ◽  
Ushma Wadia ◽  
Nigel Crawford ◽  
Nicole L. Messina ◽  
Tobias R. Kollmann ◽  

AbstractThe reported frequency and types of adverse events following initial vaccination and revaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) varies worldwide. Using active surveillance in a randomised controlled trial of BCG vaccination (the BRACE trial), we determined the incidence and risk factors for the development of BCG injection site abscess and regional lymphadenopathy. Injection site abscess occurred in 3% of 1387 BCG-vaccinated participants; the majority (34/41, 83%) resolved without treatment. The rate was higher in BCG-revaccinated participants (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7–7.5), in whom abscess onset was also earlier (median 16 vs. 27 days, p = 0.008). No participant with an abscess had a positive interferon-gamma release assay. Regional lymphadenopathy occurred in 48/1387 (3%) of BCG-vaccinated participants, with a higher rate in revaccinated participants (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.9). BCG-associated lymphadenopathy, but not injection site abscess, was influenced by age and sex. A previous positive tuberculin skin test was not associated with local reactions. The increased risk of injection site abscess or lymphadenopathy following BCG revaccination is relevant to BCG vaccination policy in an era when BCG is increasingly being considered for novel applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
José M. Mestre ◽  
Svenja Taubner ◽  
Catarina Pinheiro Mota ◽  
Margarida Rangel Henriques ◽  
Andrea Saliba ◽  

BackgroundExternalising behaviours are becoming a remarkably prevalent problem during adolescence, often precipitating both externalising and internalising disorders in later adulthood. Psychological treatments aim to increase the social functioning of adolescents in order for them to live a more balanced life and prevent these negative trajectories. However, little is known of the intervening variables and mediators involved in these treatments' change mechanisms. We conducted a systematic review, exploring the available evidence on mediators of psychological treatments for externalising behaviours and symptoms amongst adolescents (10 to 19 years old).MethodsA systematic search was performed on Medline and PsycINFO databases, which identified studies from inception to February 23, 2020. Eligible studies included randomised controlled trials that enrolled adolescents with externalising symptoms and behaviours as, at least, one of the primary outcomes. A group of 20 reviewers from the COST-Action TREATme (CA16102) were divided into 10 pairs. Each pair independently screened studies for inclusion, extracted information from the included studies, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies and the requirements for mediators, following Kazdin's criteria. Risk of bias of RCTs was assessed by the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Extracted data from the included studies were reported using a narrative synthesis.ResultsFollowing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA), after removing duplicates, 3,660 articles were screened. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. In a second stage, 965 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. A total of 14 studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. The majority were related to systemic psychological treatment approaches. Two types of mediators were identified as potentially being involved in the mechanisms of change for better social improvements of adolescents: to increase healthier parent–adolescent relationships and parental discipline. However, there were significant and non-significant results amongst the same mediators, which led to discussing the results tentatively.ConclusionsFamily variables were found to be the largest group of investigated mediators, followed by relational, behavioural, and emotional variables. No cognitive or treatment-specific mediators were identified. Both adequate behavioural control of adolescents' peer behaviour and a better positive balance in their relationships with their parents seemed to buffer the effects of externalising behaviours in adolescents. Several methodological limitations concerning mediation testing design, outcome measures, and mediator selection have been identified.Ethics and DisseminationEthical approval was not required. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021231835.

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