clinical studies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 372 ◽  
pp. 131325
Author(s):  
Suene V.S. Souza ◽  
Nuno Borges ◽  
Elsa F. Vieira

Author(s):  
Francesca Civoli ◽  
Barbara Finck ◽  
Helen Tang ◽  
Jennifer Hodge ◽  
Hillary O’Kelly ◽  
...  

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 215
Author(s):  
Marcello Demi ◽  
Natalia Buda ◽  
Gino Soldati

Introduction: Vertical artifacts, including B lines, are frequently seen in a variety of lung diseases. Their sonomorphology varies in length, width, shape, and internal reverberations. The reason for this diversity is still unknown and is the cause of discussion between clinicians and ultrasound physics engineers. Aim: The aim of this work is to sum up the most common clinician observations and provide an explanation to each of them derived from ultrasound physics. Materials and Methods: Based on clinical and engineering experiences as well as data collected from relevant literature, the sonomorphology of vertical artifacts was analyzed. Thirteen questions and answers were prepared on the common sonomorphology of vertical artifacts, current nomenclature, and clinical observations. Conclusions: From a clinical standpoint, the analysis of vertical artifacts is very important and requires that further clinical studies be conducted in cooperation with engineers who specialize in physics.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Sara Assadpour ◽  
Mohammad Reza Shiran ◽  
Peyman Asadi ◽  
Javad Akhtari ◽  
Amirhossein Sahebkar

Sumatriptan (ST) is a commonly prescribed drug for treating migraine. The efficiency of several routes of ST administration has been investigated. Recently, the intranasal route with different delivery systems has gained interest owing to its fast-acting and effectiveness. The present study is aimed at reviewing the available studies on novel delivery systems for intranasal ST administration. The oral route of ST administration is common but complicated with some problems. Gastroparesis in patients with migraine may reduce the absorption and effectiveness of ST upon oral use. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal (GI) system and hepatic metabolism can alter the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of ST. The bioavailability of conventional nasal liquids is low due to the deposition of a large fraction of the delivered dose of a drug in the nasal cavity. Several delivery systems have been utilized in a wide range of preclinical and clinical studies to enhance the bioavailability of ST. The beneficial effects of the dry nasal powder of ST (AVP-825) have been proven in clinical studies. Moreover, other delivery systems based on microemulsions, microspheres, and nanoparticles have been introduced, and their higher bioavailability and efficacy were demonstrated in preclinical studies. Based on the extant findings, harnessing novel delivery systems can improve the bioavailability of ST and enhance its effectiveness against migraine attacks. However, further clinical studies are needed to approve the safety and efficacy of employing such systems in humans.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 206
Author(s):  
Chiara E. Ghezzi ◽  
Devon R. Hartigan ◽  
Justin P. Hardick ◽  
Rebecca Gore ◽  
Miryam Adelfio ◽  
...  

During the COVID-19 public health emergency, many actions have been undertaken to help ensure that patients and health care providers have timely and continued access to high-quality medical devices to respond effectively. The development and validation of new testing supplies and equipment, including collection swabs, has helped to expand the availability and capability for various diagnostic, therapeutic, and protective medical devices in high demand during the COVID-19 emergency. Here, we report the initial validation of a new injection-molded anterior nasal swab, ClearTip™, that was experimentally validated in a laboratory setting as well as in independent clinical studies in comparison to gold standard flocked swabs. We have also developed an in vitro anterior nasal tissue model which offers a novel, efficient, and clinically relevant validation tool to replicate the clinical swabbing workflow with high fidelity, while being accessible, safe, reproducible, and time- and cost-effective. ClearTip™ displayed greater inactivated virus release in the benchtop model, confirmed by its greater ability to report positive samples in a small clinical study in comparison to flocked swabs. We also quantified the detection of biological materials, as a proxy for viral material, in multi-center pre-clinical and clinical studies which showed a statistically significant difference in one study and a reduction in performance in comparison to flocked swabs. Taken together, these results emphasize the compelling benefits of non-absorbent injection-molded anterior nasal swabs for COVID-19 detection, comparable to standard flocked swabs. Injection-molded swabs, as ClearTip™, could have the potential to support future swab shortages, due to its manufacturing advantages, while offering benefits in comparison to highly absorbent swabs in terms of comfort, limited volume collection, and potential multiple usage.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
John P.A. Ioannidis

Importance. COVID-19 has resulted in massive production, publication and wide dissemination of clinical studies trying to identify effective treatments. However, several widely touted treatments failed to show effectiveness in large well-done randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Objective. To evaluate for COVID-19 treatments that showed no benefits in subsequent large RCTs how many of their most-cited clinical studies had declared favorable results for these interventions. Methods. Scopus (last update December 23, 2021) identified articles on lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxycholoroquine/azithromycin, remdesivir, convalescent plasma, colchicine or interferon (index interventions) that represented clinical trials and that had received >150 citations. Their conclusions were assessed and correlated with study design features. The ten most recent citations for the most-cited article on each index intervention were examined on whether they were critical to the highly-cited study. Altmetric scores were also obtained. Findings. 40 articles of clinical studies on these index interventions had received >150 citations (7 exceeded 1,000 citations). 20/40 (50%) had favorable conclusions and 4 were equivocal. Highly-cited articles with favorable conclusions were rarely RCTs while those without favorable conclusions were mostly RCTs (3/20 vs 15/20, p=0.0003). Only 1 RCT with favorable conclusions had sample size >160. Citation counts correlated strongly with Altmetric scores, in particular news items. Only 9 (15%) of 60 recent citations to the most highly-cited studies with favorable or equivocal conclusions were critical to the highly-cited study. Conclusion. Many clinical studies with favorable conclusions for largely ineffective COVID-19 treatments are uncritically heavily cited and disseminated. Early observational studies and small randomized trials may cause spurious claims of effectiveness that get perpetuated.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 908
Author(s):  
Zuzana Romanova ◽  
Natasa Hlavacova ◽  
Daniela Jezova

There is no doubt that chronic stress accompanied by adrenocortical stress hormone release affects the development and treatment outcome of several mental disorders. Less attention has been paid to the effects of psychotropic drugs on adrenocortical steroids, particularly in clinical studies. This review focuses on the knowledge related to the possible modulation of cortisol and aldosterone secretion under non-stress and stress conditions by antipsychotic drugs, which are being used in the treatment of several psychotic and affective disorders. The molecular mechanisms by which antipsychotic drugs may influence steroid stress hormones include the modulation of central and/or adrenocortical dopamine and serotonin receptors, modulation of inflammatory cytokines, influence on regulatory mechanisms in the central part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, inhibition of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene promoters, influencing glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription, indirect effects via prolactin release, alteration of signaling pathways of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions. Clinical studies performed in healthy subjects, patients with psychosis, and patients with bipolar disorder suggest that single and repeated antipsychotic treatments either reduce cortisol concentrations or do not affect its secretion. A single and potentially long-term treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists, including antipsychotics, has a stimulatory action on aldosterone release.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohan Shankar G. ◽  
Mundanattu Swetha ◽  
C K Keerthana ◽  
Tennyson P Rayginia ◽  
Ruby John Anto

Cancer chemoprevention approaches are aimed at preventing, delaying, or suppressing tumor incidence using synthetic or natural bioactive agents. Mechanistically, chemopreventive agents also aid in mitigating cancer development, either by impeding DNA damage or by blocking the division of premalignant cells with DNA damage. Several pre-clinical studies have substantiated the benefits of using various dietary components as chemopreventives in cancer therapy. The incessant rise in the number of cancer cases globally is an issue of major concern. The excessive toxicity and chemoresistance associated with conventional chemotherapies decrease the success rates of the existent chemotherapeutic regimen, which warrants the need for an efficient and safer alternative therapeutic approach. In this scenario, chemopreventive agents have been proven to be successful in protecting the high-risk populations from cancer, which further validates chemoprevention strategy as rational and promising. Clinical studies have shown the effectiveness of this approach in managing cancers of different origins. Phytochemicals, which constitute an appreciable proportion of currently used chemotherapeutic drugs, have been tested for their chemopreventive efficacy. This review primarily aims to highlight the efficacy of phytochemicals, currently being investigated globally as chemopreventives. The clinical relevance of chemoprevention, with special emphasis on the phytochemicals, curcumin, resveratrol, tryptanthrin, kaempferol, gingerol, emodin, quercetin genistein and epigallocatechingallate, which are potential candidates due to their ability to regulate multiple survival pathways without inducing toxicity, forms the crux of this review. The majority of these phytochemicals are polyphenols and flavanoids. We have analyzed how the key molecular targets of these chemopreventives potentially counteract the key drivers of chemoresistance, causing minimum toxicity to the body. An overview of the underlying mechanism of action of these phytochemicals in regulating the key players of cancer progression and tumor suppression is discussed in this review. A summary of the clinical trials on the important phytochemicals that emerge as chemopreventives is also incorporated. We elaborate on the pre-clinical and clinical observations, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, and molecular targets of some of these natural products. To summarize, the scope of this review comprises of the current status, limitations, and future directions of cancer chemoprevention, emphasizing the potency of phytochemicals as effective chemopreventives.


Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 141
Author(s):  
Camille Esneau ◽  
Alexandra Cate Duff ◽  
Nathan W. Bartlett

Rhinoviruses (RVs) have been reported as one of the main viral causes for severe respiratory illnesses that may require hospitalization, competing with the burden of other respiratory viruses such as influenza and RSV in terms of severity, economic cost, and resource utilization. With three species and 169 subtypes, RV presents the greatest diversity within the Enterovirus genus, and despite the efforts of the research community to identify clinically relevant subtypes to target therapeutic strategies, the role of species and subtype in the clinical outcomes of RV infection remains unclear. This review aims to collect and organize data relevant to RV illness in order to find patterns and links with species and/or subtype, with a specific focus on species and subtype diversity in clinical studies typing of respiratory samples.


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