Paranasal Sinuses
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Author(s):  
Prajwal Kumar ◽  
Swati Goyal ◽  
Prashanth Prabhu

Background and Aim: A rare fungal infection, mucormycosis, has become more common in patients recovering from COVID in its second wave in India. The proximity and easy access to the middle ear through the Eustachian tube from paranasal sinuses alarms the need for early detec­tion of middle ear involvement. Hence, the study was carried out to determine the influence of mucormycosis on Immittance and otoacoustic emissions. Methods: eleven rhino orbital mucormycosis patients aged 40-60 years participated in the study. Middle ear evaluation was carried out with the help of Immittance and otoacoustic emissi­ons. Results: It was found that 4/11 (36.36%) parti­cipants had abnormal Immittance and absent oto­acoustic emissions, indicating middle ear dys­function. 3/4 participants had middle ear dys­function in the ear ipsilateral to the side of the infection. Conclusion: The study results reveal a rare cha­nce of middle ear involvement in mucormycosis patients, which calls for the crucial role of the audiologist in the early detection of middle ear dysfunction. Keywords: Mucormycosis; immittance; otoacoustic emissions


Author(s):  
Ahmad Mujahed Abdulqader Mousa ◽  
Zadorozhna Anna ◽  
Dieieva Julia ◽  
Tereshchenko Zhanna ◽  
Konovalov Serhii

Purpose of Review: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is denoted as the symptomatic inflammations of sin nasal mucosa persists for ≥12 weeks. The purpose of this study was to review the recent literatures for digging out a clear concept on the clinical presentations of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and assess the potentialities of the features. Recent Findings: According to the findings, descriptions and discussions of several recent studies it was observed that, a package of clinical features and presentations are associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Some are major and some are minor potentials. The frequencies and severities of symptoms and features are directly dependent on the duration of that disease. Summary: Basically, rhinosinusitis or CRS is an inflammatory and infectious disease which affects the nasal cavities as well as the paranasal sinuses of patients. Rhinosinusitis with polyps is more common in male than that in female. There are many possible clinical features of CRS. But as per the frequencies, duration and effects nasal congestion, nasal discharge (Anterior/posterior nasal drip), pain/pressure on the face, impaired ability to smell (Hyposmia/anosmia), dizziness, fever and cough are the most common clinical features of chronic rhinosinusitis.


Author(s):  
Mahdi Niknami ◽  
Elham Emami ◽  
Abdolhosein Mozaffari ◽  
Hashem Sharifian ◽  
Sanaz Safari

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the opacification degree of the paranasal sinuses on computed tomography (CT) with clinical symptoms, and anatomical variations of the nose and paranasal sinuses in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Materials and Methods: This descriptive prospective study evaluated 100 patients (60 males and 40 females), who were diagnosed with CRS by ENT specialists according to the clinical findings, and were scheduled for a CT scan. The patients were requested to express the severity of their symptoms using a visual analog scale. The CT scans of the paranasal sinuses were assessed for the presence of anatomical variations and scored using the modified Lund-Mackay scoring system for the opacification degree of each sinus. The correlations between the anatomical variations and sinusitis, and also between the severity of symptoms/disease severity and CT scores were statistically analyzed. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The most common symptoms were purulent (discolored) nasal drainage and nasal obstruction. Septal deviation was the most common anatomical variation. The maxillary and anterior ethmoid sinuses were the most commonly involved areas. The Spearman’s correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between the sinus involvement and some of the evaluated symptoms, as well as certain types of anatomical variations (P<0.05). Conclusion: Some specific anatomical variations of the paranasal sinuses may predispose them to sinusitis. The CT scan score can predict the severity of many symptoms such as purulent (discolored) nasal drainage, nasal obstruction, hyposmia/anosmia, halitosis, cough, and fatigue, among the other symptoms of CRS.


Author(s):  
Nina Peroša ◽  
Jure Urbančič ◽  
Tomislav Felbabić ◽  
Milica Stefanović ◽  
Jože Pižem ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 155335062110396
Author(s):  
Guillaume Michel ◽  
Durgesh Haribhau Salunkhe ◽  
Philippe Bordure ◽  
Damien Chablat

In otolaryngologic surgery, more and more robots are being studied to meet the clinical needs of operating rooms. However, to help design and optimize these robots, the workspace must be precisely defined taking into account patient variability. The aim of this work is to define a geometric atlas of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses for endoscopic robotic applications. Scans of several patients of different ages and sexes were used to determine the average size of these workspaces, which are linked by the similar use of endoscopes in surgery.


2021 ◽  
pp. 152-158
Author(s):  
E. S. Yadchenko ◽  
I. D. Shlyaga ◽  
D. D. Radzko ◽  
A. V. Novik

Objective. To analyze a rare clinical case of the aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the paranasal sinuses in a 9-year-old patient.Materials and methods. We studied the data of the anamnesis, diagnostic and treatment methods contained in the medical history of the inpatient. We examined the patient and kept her under clinical observation during the process of the examination and treatment.Results. The fnal diagnosis of the ABC of the paranasal sinuses in the 9-year-old patient was verifed after the obtainment of the results of the performed clinical and morphological studies. The neoplasm was surgically removed. One year after the surgery, the MRI investigation showed no relapse. The child is in a fair condition.Conclusion. To diagnose an ABC, it is required to perform a histological examination of the tumor including the use of immunohistochemical methods.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 13-16
Author(s):  
Rimma M. Pestova ◽  
Elena E. Saveleva ◽  
Liliya F. Aznabaeva

Objectives to assess the features of the inflammatory process of the nasal mucous membrane and sinuses in patients with сhronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Material and methods. We analyzed the results of examination of 44 patients with CRSwNP. The objects of investigation were smears-reprints from the mucous membrane of the middle turbinate (rhinocytograms) and the intensity of the extracellular peroxidase activity of the lavage fluids of the maxillary sinuses. The data obtained were processed using the Statistica 8.0 software. Results. When analyzing rhinocytograms of the mucous membrane of the middle turbinates, the epithelial type of rhinocytogram was most often detected in 65.9% of cases (epithelial cells more than 50%); the eosinophilic type in 22.7% (eosinophils more than 1%) and smears with mast cells in 4.6% of cases; the neutrophilic type was less frequent (neutrophils more than 50%) 6.8% of cases. In 34.1% of patients, the cells of the columnar epithelium had pronounced changes in the cytoplasm (vacuolization and enzymatic activity); and in 38.6% of cases the gross pathology was recorded directly in the nucleus of the cells (nucleoli, granules, destruction of the nucleus). The revealed pathology of the cell nucleus suggests the viral etiology of the development of productive inflammation in the nasal cavity and sinuses In the lavage fluids of the maxillary sinuses, a high intensity of extracellular peroxidase activity was recorded (1777.9132.4 a.u. compared to 1225.0190.9 a.u. in patients with chronic purulent rhinosinusitis and 1245.0362.3 a.u. in patients with purulent-polypous rhinosinusitis). Conclusion. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is accompanied by a pronounced inflammatory process of the nasal mucous membrane and paranasal sinuses in the form of structural and functional changes in the cells of the columnar epithelium and a high intensity of extracellular peroxidase activity. The epithelial nucleus damage (the presence of nucleoli, granules, destruction of the nucleus) suggests a viral nature with the development of productive inflammation in the nasal cavity and sinuses.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 17-20
Author(s):  
Lyubov V. Fileva ◽  
Lyudmila A. Baryshevskaya ◽  
Inna O. Chernyshenko ◽  
Tatyana A. Zavalko ◽  
Svetlana V. Rodionova ◽  
...  

According to the literature, such dentition anomaly as supernumerary teeth is more common in the practice of a dentist than of an otorhinolaryngologist. Clinical manifestations of this pathology in adults are less frequent than in children. Periodically, there appear descriptions of individual cases of hyperdentia, in which the tooth is located in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, orbit. It is not always possible to find such a tooth on examination, therefore, additional research methods help to determine the location and pathological process in more detail. We present our clinical observation of tooth retention and ectopia in the nasal cavity and upper jaw. The diagnosis was confirmed by the data of endoscopic examination and computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses. The ectopic tooth was found before the development of pronounced local inflammation. The tooth was removed from the nasal cavity using endoscopic techniques, no communication between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity was found. The postoperative period was uneventful. On examination two weeks after the operation, no pathological changes in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses were found, as well as defects in the mucous membrane and bone part of the nasal cavity floor.


2021 ◽  
Vol 87 ◽  
pp. 106450
Author(s):  
Hung Dinh Kieu ◽  
Tam Duc Le ◽  
Vu Nguyen ◽  
Trung Quang Tran

Author(s):  
Dharmishtha H. Parmar ◽  
Hiten R. Maniyar ◽  
Hetna A. Patel

<p class="abstract"><strong>Background:</strong> The term ‘rhinosinusitis’ refers to a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by inflammation of mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have recently mentioned that 136 million people of India suffer from chronic rhino sinusitis.</p><p class="abstract"><strong>Methods:</strong> A total 50 patients with symptoms of rhinosinusitis were investigated with both diagnostic nasal endoscopy and CT scan paranasal sinuses and their findings were scored with particular scoring system and compared with each other.  </p><p class="abstract"><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 50 patients, 90% patients were diagnosed on CT scan and 84% patients were diagnosed on nasal endoscopy. By considering CT scan as accurate procedure and correlating nasal endoscopy with CT scan, sensitivity was 88.88%, specificity was 60%, positive predictive value was 95.23%, negative predictive value was 37.5%, and p value was 0.004671, which was significant at p&lt;0.05, indicates that CT paranasal sinuses is more accurate than diagnostic nasal endoscopy in diagnosing chronic rhinosinusitis.</p><p class="abstract"><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Both diagnostic nasal endoscopy and CT paranasal sinuses are important pre-operative evaluation tools in detecting pathology and both are complementary to each other. But CT paranasal sinuses are more convenient than endoscopy according to this study.</p>


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