quantitative analysis
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Lorenzo Casimiro ◽  
Leonardo Andreoni ◽  
Jessica Groppi ◽  
Alberto Credi ◽  
Rémi Métivier ◽  

AbstractChemical actinometers are a useful tool in photochemistry, which allows to measure the photon flux of a light source to carry out quantitative analysis on photoreactions. The most commonly employed actinometers so far show minor drawbacks, such as difficult data treatment, parasite reactions, low stability or impossible reset. We propose herewith the use of 4,4′-dimethylazobenzene as a chemical actinometer. This compound undergoes a clean and efficient E/Z isomerization, approaching total conversion upon irradiation at 365 nm. Thanks to its properties, it can be used to determine the photon flux in the UV–visible region, with simple experimental methods and data treatment, and with the possibility to be reused after photochemical or thermal reset. Graphical abstract

Thyroid ◽  
2022 ◽  
Anna M Sawka ◽  
Sangeet Ghai ◽  
Lorne Rotstein ◽  
Jonathan C Irish ◽  
Jesse D Pasternak ◽  

René Laquai ◽  
Thomas Schaupp ◽  
Axel Griesche ◽  
Bernd R. Müller ◽  
Andreas Kupsch ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 019459982110728
Michael Coulter ◽  
Kastley Marvin ◽  
Matthew Brigger ◽  
Christopher M. Johnson

Objective To assess dysphagia outcomes following surgical management of unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) in adults. Data Sources Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central. Review Methods A structured literature search was utilized, and a 2-researcher systematic review was performed following PRISMA guidelines. Extractable data were pooled, and a quantitative analysis was performed with a random effects model to analyze treatment outcome and complications by procedure. Results A total of 416 publications were screened and 26 met inclusion criteria. Subjects encompassed 959 patients with UVFI who underwent 916 procedures (n = 547, injection laryngoplasty; n = 357, laryngeal framework surgery; n = 12, laryngeal reinnervation). An overall 615 were identified as having dysphagia as a result of UVFI and had individually extractable outcome data, which served as the basis for a quantitative meta-analysis. In general, dysphagia outcomes after all medialization procedures were strongly positive. Quantitative analysis demonstrated a success rate estimate of 90% (95% CI, 75%-100%) for injection laryngoplasty and 92% (95% CI, 87%-97%) for laryngeal framework surgery. The estimated complication rate was 7% (95% CI, 2%-13%) for injection laryngoplasty and 15% (95% CI, 10%-20%) for laryngeal framework surgery, with minor complications predominating. Although laryngeal reinnervation could not be assessed quantitatively due to low numbers, qualitative analysis demonstrated consistent benefit for a majority of patients for each procedure. Conclusion Dysphagia due to UVFI can be improved in a majority of patients with surgical procedures intended to improve glottal competence, with a low risk of complications. Injection laryngoplasty and laryngeal framework surgery appear to be efficacious and safe, and laryngeal reinnervation may be a promising new option for select patients.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Hui-Li Lin ◽  
Fang-Suey Lin ◽  
Ling-Chen Liu ◽  
Wen-Hsin Liu

This study aimed to examine the depression risk factors for knowledge workers aged 20–64 in the post-capitalist society of Taiwan. Interview data from 2014 and 2019 were adopted for quantitative analysis of the depression risk by demographic and individual characteristics. The results showed that the depression risks of knowledge workers were not affected by demographic variables in a single period. From 2014 to 2019, the prevalence of high depression risk in knowledge workers aged 20–64 years increased over time. The more attention is paid to gender equality in society, the less the change in the gender depression index gap may be seen. Positive psychological state and family relationships are both depression risk factors and depression protective factors. Being male, married, religious, and aged 45–49 years old were found to be critical risk factors. Variables of individual characteristics could effectively predict depression risk.

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