Papillary Thyroid
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liuhua Zhou ◽  
Qiaodan Zhu ◽  
Jincao Yao ◽  
Chen Yang ◽  
Dong Xu

Abstract Objective Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid carcinoma, and is prone to cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM). We aim to analyze the correlation between clinical information, ultrasonic parameters of PTC and CLNM. Methods 1335 patients who had pathologically confirmed unifocal PTC were enrolled. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis were performed to predict CLNM in PTC patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Results Univariate analysis showed that gender, age, maximum tumor diameter and volume, cross-sectional and longitudinal aspect ratio were related to CLNM (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that gender, age, maximum tumor diameter and volume were independent correlative factors, cross-sectional aspect ratio had significant difference for PTC patients excluding PTMC to predict CLNM. The area under the curve (AUC) of the maximum tumor diameter and volume was 0.738 and 0.733, respectively. Maximum tumor diameter and volume, and cross-sectional and longitudinal aspect ratio were statistically significant following analysis of variance (P < 0.05). Conclusions Younger age, male, and larger tumor were high risk factors for CLNM in patients with unifocal PTC. Cross-sectional aspect ratio had a more effective predictive value for CLNM in patients with larger thyroid tumors.


Thyroid ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ayaka Sato ◽  
Masahiko Tanabe ◽  
Yumi Tsuboi ◽  
Takayoshi Niwa ◽  
Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku ◽  
...  

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 4692
Author(s):  
Arnoldo Piccardo ◽  
Francesco Fiz ◽  
Gianluca Bottoni ◽  
Camilla De Luca ◽  
Michela Massollo ◽  
...  

Thyroid nodule ultrasound-based risk stratification systems (US-RSSs) have been successfully used in adults to predict the likelihood of malignancies. However, their applicability to the paediatric population is unclear, especially in children with a history of radiation exposure, who are at a higher cancer risk. We tested the efficacy of three US-RSSs in this setting by retrospectively applying three classification systems (ACR-TIRADS, ATA and EU-TIRADS) to all paediatric patients referred for thyroid nodules and with a radiation exposure history. We compared the results with a reference standard (pathology or 36-month follow-up); sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) and accuracy were calculated. A total of 52 patients were included; fourteen of them (27%) had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) at the final histology. No significant differences across the US-RSSs were detected; specificity (range 95–97%) and NPV (range 88–93%) were particularly elevated. However, ACR-TIRADS, ATA and EU-TIRADS did not indicate the need for a biopsy in six (42.8%), seven (50%) and eight (57%) cases of PTC; in five cases, this lack of indication was due to a small (<1 cm) nodule size. In conclusion, US-RSSs show a high NPV and specificity in paediatric patients, whereas the cytology indication could be improved by reconsidering the dimensional criterion.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xubin Dong ◽  
Cong Jin ◽  
Danxiang Chen ◽  
Yizuo Chen ◽  
Zhi-qiang Ye ◽  
...  

BackgroundGenomic instability (GI) is among the top ten characteristics of malignancy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are promising cancer biomarkers that are reportedly involved in GI. So far, the clinical value of GI-related lncRNAs (GIlncs) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has not been clarified.MethodsIntegrative analysis of lncRNA expression and somatic mutation profiles was performed to identify GIlncs. Analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs in the group with high- and low- cumulative number of somatic mutations revealed significant GIlncs in PTC. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to identify hub-GIlncs.ResultsA computational model based on four lncRNAs (FOXD2-AS1, LINC01614, AC073257.2, and AC005082.1) was identified as a quantitative index using an in-silicon discovery cohort. GILS score was significantly associated with poor prognosis, as validated in the TCGA dataset and further tested in our local RNA-Seq cohort. Moreover, a combination of clinical characteristics and the composite GILS-clinical prognostic nomogram demonstrates satisfactory discrimination and calibration. Furthermore, the GILS score and FOXD2-AS1, LINC01614, AC073257.2, and AC005082.1 were also associated with driver mutations and multiple clinical-pathological variables, respectively. Moreover, RNA-Seq confirmed the expression patterns of FOXD2-AS1, LINC01614, AC073257.2, and AC005082.1 in PTC and normal thyroid tissues. Biological experiments demonstrated that downregulated or overexpressed LINC01614 affect PTC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Activation of the stromal and immune cell infiltration was also observed in the high LINC01614 group in the PTC microenvironment.ConclusionIn summary, we identified a signature for clinical outcome prediction in PTC comprising four lncRNAs associated with GI. A better understanding of the GI providing an alternative evaluation of the progression risk of PTC. Our study also demonstrated LINC01614 as a novel oncogenic lncRNA and verified its phenotype in PTC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yonglian Huang ◽  
Hengwei Zhang ◽  
Lidong Wang ◽  
Chenxi Liu ◽  
Mingyue Guo ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), with a rapidly increasing incidence, is the most prevalent malignant cancer of the thyroid. However, its pathogenesis is unclear and its specific clinical indicators have not yet been identified. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tumor occurrence and progression. Specifically, miR-613 participates in the regulation of tumor development in various cancers; however, its effects and mechanisms of action in PTC are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression and function of miR-613 in PTC. Methods qRT-PCR was used to determine miR-613 expression in 107 pairs of PTC and adjacent-normal tissues as well as in PTC cell lines and to detect TAGLN2 mRNA expression in PTC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Western blot analysis was performed to identify TAGLN2 and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers. The effects of miR-613 on PTC progression were evaluated by performing MTS, wound-healing, and Transwell assays in vitro. Luciferase reporter assays were also performed to validate the target of miR-613. Results In PTC, miR-613 was significantly downregulated and its low expression level was associated with cervical lymph node metastasis. However, its overexpression significantly suppressed PTC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and inhibited EMT. TAGLN2 was identified as a target of miR-613, which also significantly inhibited the expression of TAGLN2. Further, the restoration of TAGLN2 expression attenuated the inhibitory effects of miR-613 on PTC cell proliferation and metastasis. Conclusion Our findings demonstrated that miR-613 can suppress the progression of PTC cells by targeting TAGLN2, indicating that miR-613 plays the role of a tumor suppressor in PTC. Overall, these results suggest that the upregulation of miR-613 is a promising therapeutic strategy for PTC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sangeet Ghai ◽  
Ciara O’Brien ◽  
David P. Goldstein ◽  
Anna M. Sawka ◽  
Lorne Rotstein ◽  
...  

AbstractActive surveillance (AS) of small, low-risk papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) is increasingly studied in prospective observational studies. Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality for case selection. While researchers have put forward selection criteria for PTCs based on size, absence of suspicious lymph nodes and tumor location, there are limited reported data highlighting inherent ultrasound limitations and guidelines for case selection and follow-up. We report our experience including imaging limitations encountered in the ongoing AS prospective observational study for PTCs measuring < 2 cm at our institute. We define disease progression as an increase in size of > 3 mm in the largest dimension of nodule or evidence of metastatic disease or extrathyroidal extension. Accurate, consistent and reproducible measurements of PTCs are essential in risk stratifying patients for the option of AS or disease progression. Interobserver discrepancy, shadowing from coarse calcification and background parenchyma heterogeneity or thyroiditis can limit accurate PTC size assessment and therefore hinder patient eligibility evaluation or AS follow-up. Following the ACR Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) protocol of three-axes technique to measure a thyroid nodule enables reproducibility of measurements. In patients with multi-nodular goiter, accurate identification and labeling of the PTC is important to avoid mistaking with adjacent benign nodules at follow-up. Ultrasound assessment for extrathyroid extension of PTC, and relationship of PTC to trachea and the anatomic course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve are important considerations in evaluation for AS eligibility.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chenya Lu ◽  
Xingjia Li ◽  
Xiaoqiu Chu ◽  
Ruiping Li ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
...  

ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), and to observe the histopathological changes after MWA.MethodsMWA was performed under ultrasound guidance for 73 unifocal PTMC patients without clinically cervical or distant metastasis. The target ablation zone exceeded the tumor edge (judged by contrast-enhanced US) to avoid marginal residue and recurrence. Ultrasound evaluation was performed at 1 day, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment, and thyroid function evaluation at the first 6 months. Repeated fine needle aspiration cytology or core needle biopsy pathology was performed at 3 or 6 months after MWA to evaluate residual tumors. Any adverse event associated with MWA was evaluated.ResultsThe follow-up after MWA lasted 6 (6, 12) months. Tumor volume decreased significantly from 0.06 mm3 (0.04, 0.11 mm3) to 0.03 mm3 (0.00, 0.06 mm3) at 12 months after MWA (P&lt; 0.001), with a median volume reduction ratio of 80.28% (-7.43, 100%) and 16 cases (21.92%) presenting complete remission. The largest diameter, volume and ablation energy were found to be different in patients with and without complete remission 12 months after MWA. On histopathological examinations, no atypical or malignant follicular cells were identified after thermal ablation. The most common pathological characteristics were fibroblastic proliferation (34/39, 87.18%) and chronic inflammation (32/39, 82.05%), followed by infarction (21/39, 53.85%). Five patients were transferred to thyroidectomy and 4 of them were confirmed with local recurrence and/or lymph node metastasis. Serum thyrotropin decreased transiently after MWA (P&lt; 0.01) but normalized thereafter. No serious and permanent complications were reported.ConclusionsMWA is a safe and effective treatment for low-risk PTMC. Fibroblastic proliferation and chronic inflammation are the most common pathological changes after MWA of PTMC.


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