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2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 66-96
Author(s):  
Michélle Möhring ◽  
Natascha Katharina Krick ◽  
Anika Ditze

The stigmatisation of people with mental illness has severe negative consequences for affected individuals. As research in the context of exemplification theory (Zillmann & Brosius, 2000) shows, single-case descriptions of affected individuals (i.e., exemplars) have the potential to either strengthen or reduce stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental illness, in general. We examine the role of depicting social support for exemplars with mental illness (i.e., depression), exemplars’ age and sex as well as characteristics of the potential stigmatisers (e.g., sex, relationship status) in generalised stigma-related attitudes towards people with mental illness. A 2 × 2 × 2 online survey experiment with 854 participants was conducted. Univariate ANOVAs yielded main effects and complex interaction patterns of participants’ sex and relationship status, as well as combinations of exemplar characteristics. Overall, our results confirm the influence that single-case descriptions can have upon generalised stigma-related attitudes towards people with mental illness. They underline the potential of depicting social support for exemplars with mental illness as well as the consideration of potential stigmatisers’ sex and relationship status for (de-)stigmatisation and give starting points for future research in the field of health and anti-stigma-communication.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhenxin Liao ◽  
Xueyan Zhang ◽  
Yingwen Wang ◽  
Tingwei Wang ◽  
Xinyu Li ◽  
...  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, and many Chinese college students both in China and abroad were house-quarantined. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and coping strategies among Chinese overseas and domestic college students during this pandemic. A questionnaire was opportunistically distributed to Chinese college students studying both domestically and abroad six months after the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaire consisted of IES-R, SCSQ, and SSRS. The average score of delayed-onset PTSD in our population was 21.411 (full mark, 88 points), which reflected a total high level of delayed-onset PTSD symptoms. Statistical differences were shown between students who have been back to universities during the pandemic or not in the hyperarousal dimension (p = 0.016). Three coping strategies were recognized to influence the respondent’s delayed-onset PTSD symptoms, and there was a significant correlation between social support and the coping strategies students chose. A moderate to high level of delayed-onset PTSD was observed among both Chinese overseas and domestic college students 6 months after the COVID-19 outbreak. The useful coping strategies and powerful social supports are significantly important to help them stay mentally healthy and alleviate delayed-onset PTSD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259025
Author(s):  
Tomasz Daniel Jakubowski ◽  
Magdalena Maja Sitko-Dominik

Background The aim of this study was to explore potential associations between compliance with the traditional male role norms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Methods The study was conducted on 135 male Polish firefighters. The study used the Impact Event Scale-Revised, the Relations/Social Support Scale and the Male Role Norms Scale. Results The study revealed that the firefighters that suffered from probable PTSD (over 34% of all the respondents) seemed to comply with the male role norms more strictly than those without PTSD. The reverse was found to be true for the perceived social support. Social status norms and toughness norms understood as expectations that men should achieve high status by means of successful career, etc., and be tough and resilient at all costs to be perceived as “manly” were found to be positively associated with the development of PTSD, while in the case of perceived social support, a negative association was confirmed. The results might yield important clinical implications—traditional male role norms pertaining to toughness and social status might be associated with the increase in chances of developing PTSD after the exposure to potentially traumatic events. Conclusions Firefighting as a stereotypically masculine occupation may be associated with the reinforcement of stereotypically masculine behaviors, which in turn is associated with a decreased ability to cope with potentially traumatic stimuli and favoring maladaptive behaviors. The results might suggest that addressing the beliefs about masculinity during psychological intervention in the case of PTSD might be beneficial especially among such masculinized groups as firefighters. The main limitations of the study are: participation of those more eager to participate and reveal personal information; the recall and report bias; the relatively small sample size; sociodemographic data omissions; the study group almost exclusively consisting of firefighters from large urban centers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Moonika Raja ◽  
Jorunn Bjerkan ◽  
Ingjerd G. Kymre ◽  
Kathleen T. Galvin ◽  
Lisbeth Uhrenfeldt

Abstract Background Demographic changes are leading to an ageing population in Europe. People are becoming more dependent on digital technologies and health ministries invest increasingly in digitalisation. Societal digital demands impact older people and learning to use new telehealth systems and digital devices are seen as a means of securing their needs. Methods The present study undertakes a scoping review in order to map relevant evidence about telehealth and digital developments in society involving citizens aged 75 and over in European countries. It focuses on their experiences and the main barriers to, and facilitators of, societal digital demands. A framework proposed by Arksey and O`Malley was used to guide the scoping review process. The studies included in the review covered telehealth, digital technology and digital devices, and the context covered participants` own home or surroundings. A comprehensive search on PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Open Grey was undertaken. Results Out of 727 identified citations, 13 sources which met the inclusion criteria (9 original study articles, 2 theses, 1 letter about a product and 1 project report). Few of the studies identified have investigated European citizens 75 years and older separately. The studies included varied in their design, location and focus. Older people have experienced both telehealth and digital devices making life easier and the opposite. The outstanding facilitator found was that technology should be easy to use, and difficulty in remembering the instructions was seen as an important barrier. Interestingly, both social support and lack of social support were found as facilitators of using new devices. Conclusions Telehealth may give a sense of security but learning to use a new device often takes extra effort. Older people were more open to new devices if the possible advantages of the new technology outweighed the effort that would be involved in adopting a new strategy. As technology develops rapidly, and life expectancy in Europe is anticipated to rise continually, there is a need for new and additional research among older European citizens. Future research should cover the technical solutions most relevant to older people today, social support and participants` access to the devices.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Samantha Tessier ◽  
Lucia Romo ◽  
Oulmann Zerhouni

Background: Few studies on problematic gamblers have focused on how environment and personality interact in gambling behavior. The aim of this research is to investigate how social support, dimensions of personality, and advertising campaigns are associated with gambling among problematic or moderate-risk gamblers and recreational gamblers and associated with online gambling (i.e., sport and poker).Methods: One hundred nine participants (45% problematic or moderate-risk gamblers) answered an online survey including social support, five factor models of personality, typology of gamblers, and several sociodemographic variables.Results: We found that problematic and moderate-risk gamblers were significantly more sensitive to gambling advertisements compared to light players. Social support was significantly lower among online gamblers compared to offline gamblers, but no association was found between social support and type of gamblers. Problematic and moderate-risk gamblers presented lower levels of extraversion compared with recreational gamblers. Notably, when the onset of gambling is before 18 years old, participants had more chances to recall more gambling advertisements as adults.Conclusion: We propose that future longitudinal research should focus on characteristics of online gamers particularly regarding social support to understand this low level of adequacy compared to offline gamblers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yiheng Xi ◽  
Li Zhou ◽  
Ying Wang

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has sparked a major global crisis that has infected public social mentality. Drawing on the concept of peace of mind (PoM), a culture-specific positive emotion construct developed in the Chinese cultural context, this study explored the ways to build a positive public social mentality in the time of the pandemic. PoM is indicative of a calm and stable emotional state marked by self-control and spiritual cultivation and is believed to align with the perceptions of subjective well-being in Chinese or eastern cultures. A three-wave cross-lag study using an online questionnaire survey was conducted on 107 employees in Chinese enterprises during the pandemic. The research findings suggest that social support had a significant positive time-cross effect on later PoM, i.e., social support-T1 had a significant predictive effect on PoM-T2 (β = 0.16, SE = 0.09, p < 0.05) and social support-T2 had a significant predictive effect on PoM-T3 (β = 0.38, SE = 0.19, p < 0.05), whereas PoM failed to show a positive time-cross effect on later social support, i.e., the predictive effects of PoM-T1 on social support-T2 (β = 0.04, SE = 0.07, p > 0.05) and of PoM-T2 on social support-T3 (β = 0.13, SE = 0.09, p > 0.05) were not significant. This study provided a dynamic picture of the construction of public social mentality in the time of public health emergencies and also contributed to the research on PoM antecedents.


SLEEP ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Charles M Morin ◽  
Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im ◽  
Hans Ivers ◽  
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi ◽  
Pierre Philip ◽  
...  

Abstract Study Objectives High rates of sleep and mental health problems have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, but most of the evidence is retrospective without pre-pandemic data. This study documented rates of prevalent, incident, and persistent insomnia and psychological symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020) compared to pre-pandemic data (2018). Methods Data were derived from a longitudinal, population-based study of insomnia in Canada. When the first lockdown started in the province of Quebec, a subsample of participants who had completed the latest 2018 follow-up were surveyed (April-May 2020) about their sleep, insomnia, and psychological symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Prevalence, incidence, and persistence rates of insomnia, and severity of stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were estimated, as well as their associations with confinement, loneliness, social support, use of electronics, and other lifestyle changes occurring during the pandemic. A sleep/health survey and validated questionnaires of insomnia, sleep quality, stress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression were administered at both assessments. Results The sample consisted of 594 adults (mean age: 48.3 ± 13.1 years; 64.0% women). Prevalence of insomnia increased from 25.4% to 32.2% (symptoms) and from 16.8% to 19% (syndrome) from 2018 to 2020, for an overall 26.7% increase in insomnia rates. Of those classified as good sleepers in 2018 (n = 343), 32.6% (n = 112) had developed new insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among participants who had insomnia in 2018, the persistence rate was 76.5% two years later. There was a significant worsening of sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety and depression (all ps < 0.005) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2018. Significant associations were found between sleep and psychological symptoms and with living alone and being in confinement, lower social support, increased time using electronic devices, reduced physical exercise, and higher financial stress. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with significant increases in insomnia and psychological symptoms compared to the pre-pandemic period. Large scale public sleep and mental health intervention programs should be prioritized during and after a pandemic such as the the COVID-19.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0257942
Author(s):  
Banchlay Addis ◽  
Maereg Wolde ◽  
Amare Minyihun ◽  
Andualem Yalew Aschalew

Introduction Depression is a commonly overwhelming problem among patients with epilepsy which compromises their quality of life especially in developing countries. Previously limited studies were conducted using Becks Depression Inventory tool in Ethiopia. The aim of this study’s objective was to determine the prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with epilepsy. Methods Institution based cross-sectional study was employed at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from March 01–30, 2019.A total of 370 participants were selected using an interview administered structured questionnaire. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess the prevalence of depression.Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to investigate potential predictors and variables with a P-value of < 0.05 and a 95% confidence interval were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 370 study participants participated with a response rate of 92%. From the total respondents 37% experienced depression. Perceived stigma (AOR = 3.89, CI: 2.27, 6.68), educational status (AOR = 0.48, CI: 0.25, 0.92), residence (AOR = 0.5, CI: 0.28, 0.89), frequency of seizure (AOR = 2.07, CI: 1.01, 4.23) and social support (AOR = 2.73, CI: 1.41–5.31) were significantly associated with depression status. Conclusion This study revealed that prevalence of depression among Epileptic patients was high. Perceived stigma, educational status, residence, frequency of seizure and social support were significantly associated with depression status. Thus, health care workers better to give more emphasis to patients with perceived stigma, higher number of seizure frequency and to those with poor level of social support.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kanami Tsuno ◽  
Sumiyo Okawa ◽  
Midori Matsushima ◽  
Daisuke Nishi ◽  
Yuki Arakawa ◽  
...  

Background: This study focuses on postpartum women, who are one of the most vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic, aiming to reveal mental health consequences of social restrictions, loss of social support, or loss of autonomy. Methods: A cross-sectional study for postpartum women was conducted in October 2020 (N = 600). The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to measure postpartum depression. The prevalence ratios were estimated by log-binomial regression models, adjusting for age, education, household income, residence area, parity, the timing of delivery, and a prior history of depression. Results: The prevalence of postpartum depression was 28.7% (EPDS ≥), 18.6% (≥11), and 13.1% (≥13). Social restrictions including cancellation of home visits by health care professionals, or cancellation of infant checkups or vaccinations, loss of support during pregnancy or after delivery including loss of opportunities to consult with health care professionals or friends, or cancellation of parents or other family member visits to support, and loss of autonomy about delivery or breastfeeding, were associated with postnatal depression. Conclusion: About 30% of women who delivered and raised a baby during the COVID-19 pandemic had postpartum depression, which is much higher than a pre-pandemic meta-analysis. COVID-19 related social restrictions or loss of social support from healthcare professionals, family, and friends were significantly associated with postpartum depression. Also, loss of maternal autonomy in delivery and breastfeeding is associated with postpartum depression. The results indicate that both formal and informal support should not be limited to prevent postpartum depression during the pandemic.


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