Experimental Methods
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Lorenzo Casimiro ◽  
Leonardo Andreoni ◽  
Jessica Groppi ◽  
Alberto Credi ◽  
Rémi Métivier ◽  

AbstractChemical actinometers are a useful tool in photochemistry, which allows to measure the photon flux of a light source to carry out quantitative analysis on photoreactions. The most commonly employed actinometers so far show minor drawbacks, such as difficult data treatment, parasite reactions, low stability or impossible reset. We propose herewith the use of 4,4′-dimethylazobenzene as a chemical actinometer. This compound undergoes a clean and efficient E/Z isomerization, approaching total conversion upon irradiation at 365 nm. Thanks to its properties, it can be used to determine the photon flux in the UV–visible region, with simple experimental methods and data treatment, and with the possibility to be reused after photochemical or thermal reset. Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Wei Zhang

PurposeThe purpose of this review article is to demonstrate how the quasi-experimental approach has been used to study environmental and natural resource issues related to agricultural production.Design/methodology/approachThis review article first provides a short introduction to the quasi-experimental approach using the potential outcomes framework and then uses studies on the environmental sustainability of agricultural production to illustrate how quasi-experimental methods have been applied. Papers reviewed consist of studies that estimate the environmental externalities from agricultural production, evaluate agri-environmental and other related policies and programs, and demonstrate issues related to on-farm resource use and climate adaptation.FindingsDifference-in-differences (DID) and two-way fixed effects methods that utilize the spatial and temporal variation in panel data are widely used to estimate the causal impact of changes in agricultural production and policy on the environment. Utilizing the discontinuities and limits created by agricultural policies and regulations, local treatment effects on land and other input use are estimated using regression discontinuity (RD) or instrumental variable (IV) methods with cross-sectional data.Originality/valueChallenges faced by the food systems have made agricultural sustainability more critical than ever. Over the past three decades, the quasi-experimental approach has become the powerhouse of applied economic research. This review article focuses on quasi-experimental studies on the environmental sustainability of agriculture to provide methodological insights and to highlight gaps in the economics literature of agricultural sustainability.

2022 ◽  
Lukas Siebler ◽  
Maurizio Calandri ◽  
Torben Rathje ◽  
Konstantinos Stergiaropoulos

This study introduces a principle, which unifies two experimental methods for airborne indoor virus-transmissions adapted to several ventilation measures. A first-time comparison of mechanical/natural ventilation and air purifiers with regard to infection risks is achieved. Effortful computational fluid dynamics demand detailed boundary conditions for accurate calculations of indoor airflows, which are often unknown. Hence a suitable, simple and generalized experimental set up for identifying the spatial and temporal infection risk for different ventilation measures is required. A trace gas method is suitable for mechanical and natural ventilation with outdoor air exchange. For an accurate assessment of air purifiers based on filtration a surrogate particle method is appropriate. The release of a controlled rate of either trace gas or particles simulates an infectious person releasing virus material. Surrounding substance concentration measurements identify the neighborhood exposure. One key aspect of the study is to prove that the requirement of concordant results of both methods is fulfilled. This is the only way to ensure that the comparison of different ventilation measures described above is reliable. Two examples (a two person office, several classrooms) show how practical both methods are and how the principle is applicable for different types and sizes of rooms.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107754632110623
Xianzhong Wang ◽  
Ning Li ◽  
Min Yu ◽  
Hongzhou Lin ◽  
Lili Ye

In this paper, the pipeline with guide vanes was taken as the research object, the flow noise was studied based on the hybrid calculation method, then the acoustic-structure coupling method was introduced to study the vibration and radiation noise, and then explored the best position of the guide vanes. Based on the pipeline experimental platform and improved experimental methods, it was found that the guide vanes had a better noise reduction effect on the elbows; based on that, a simulation study was carried out on the elbow with guide vanes, and the mechanism of the guide vanes on the velocity field and pulsating pressure of the pipeline was explored. Finally, the noise reduction effect at different positions of the guide vanes under different flow speeds was studied. The results indicated that the guide vane at the middle of the elbow had the best effect on improving the flow field and reducing noise in the working conditions studied in this article, providing a calculation basis for the design of the guide vane.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 558
Ingrid Priscylla Silva Araújo ◽  
Dayana Bastos Costa

Studies on particulate matter (PM) from construction activities are still at an early stage. Thus, there is still no consensus on standardized experimental methods for monitoring PM in construction sites, which impedes the advancement of knowledge on this subject. This work proposes guidelines for measuring and monitoring the concentration of suspended PM and the annoyance generated by sedimented particles on construction sites in urban areas. These guidelines aim to reduce the variability and uncertainties that exist during the PM sampling processes at construction sites. This study adopts a literature review strategy in order to update the available scientific literature based on empirical evidence obtained in experimental PM studies and relevant documents from government agencies. The proposed guidelines were applied in a study protocol for gravimetric monitoring PM and annoyance tracking generated by sedimented particles using sticky pads. As a result, this article details sampling techniques, procedures, and instruments, focusing on gravimetric sampling, highlighting their characteristics compared to other monitoring approaches. Additionally, it points out a series of parameters for the measurement and monitoring of PM. This paper seeks to support future researchers in this area, inform decision making for experimental sampling, and provide a benchmark for measuring and monitoring PM at construction sites.

2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (4) ◽  
pp. 261-270
Tiberiu Manescu ◽  
Dan Mihail Costescu ◽  
Nicusor Laurentiu Zaharia ◽  
George Elvis Zidaru

In order to place a product on the market that is completely safe for users, the manufacturer must go through certain steps: design, prototyping, execution and prototype validation through experimental methods, obtaining documents that allow to sell the product from certain public or private companies (for example homologation certificate) and series production. One of the most important steps is the validation tests of the prototype because it will depend on them that the prototype corresponds to the design requirements.

2022 ◽  
Lingqiao Li ◽  
Wei Cui ◽  
Zhihui He ◽  
Weiwei Xue ◽  
Hui He

Abstract Sensors for detecting glucose concentrations are crucial to medical testing. Here, we introduce silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) uniformly distributed in space to investigate the sensing properties for detecting glucose by using the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) and experimental methods. The results show that the transmittance of dip for the proposed structural model gradually decreases as the number of Ag NPs increases, when the concentration of glucose is constant. And the transmission spectrum shows slight red shift with the increasing of the glucose concentration. Moreover, the simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results. Especially, the maximum sensitivity S=1144.07407 nm/RIU can be realized for glucose concentration variation from 0.3 to 0.4 mol/L. The research results reveal an excellent sensing property that has important application value in medical detection.

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