urban landscapes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 210 ◽  
pp. 105881
Lalita V. Zakharikhina ◽  
Lyudmila S. Malyukova ◽  
Alexey V. Ryndin

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Brook Muller

With interest in advancing inclusive urban landscapes and guided by principles of social and cultural sustainability, this essay speculates as to localized water infrastructures as “ablutionary urbanisms,” important forms of contemporary design expression in a context of rapid growth, widening inequalities, climate change and lack of resilience. It derives inspiration from vernacular precedents in advocating for an integrated, decentralized approach to addressing current urban water challenges. It explores the contemporary relevance of the sabil, a prominent civic feature of Islamic cities intended for the charitable dispensation of water. More specifically, this essay considers the contemporary relevance and potency of the sabil-kuttab, a hybrid building type unique to the city of Cairo in which a school (kuttab) sits atop a sabil. Such a type offers helpful guidance in devising principles and precepts relevant to contemporary infrastructural design in that: (1) it offers encouragement to advocate for distributed urban water systems as civically prominent elements of cities, particularly as these systems combine with other important community-focused programmatic features; and (2) given a reimagining of urban water systems as critical forms of cultural production, it offers encouragement for interdisciplinary teams to commit to the task of infrastructure planning as a promising locus of integrative design.

2022 ◽  
Hayden P. Borland ◽  
Ben L. Gilby ◽  
Christopher J. Henderson ◽  
Rod M. Connolly ◽  
Bob Gorissen ◽  

Abstract Context Landscape modification alters the condition of ecosystems and the structure of terrain, with widespread impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Seafloor dredging impacts a diversity of flora and fauna in many coastal landscapes, and these processes also transform three-dimensional terrain features. The potential ecological significance of these terrain changes in urban seascapes has, however, not been investigated. Objectives We examined the effects of terrain variation on fish assemblages in 29 estuaries in eastern Australia, and tested whether dredging changes how fish associate with terrain features. Methods We surveyed fish assemblages with baited remote underwater video stations and quantified terrain variation with nine complementary metrics (e.g. depth, aspect, curvature, slope, roughness), extracted from bathymetry maps created with multi-beam sonar. Results Fish diversity and abundance were strongly linked to seafloor terrain in both natural and dredged estuaries, and were highest in shallow waters and near features with high curvature. Dredging, however, significantly altered the terrain of dredged estuaries and transformed the significance of terrain features for fish assemblages. Abundance and diversity switched from being correlated with lower roughness and steeper slopes in natural estuaries to being linked to features with higher roughness and gentler slopes in dredged estuaries. Conclusions Contrasting fish-terrain relationships highlight previously unrecognised ecological impacts of dredging, but indicate that plasticity in terrain use might be characteristic of assemblages in urban landscapes. Incorporating terrain features into spatial conservation planning might help to improve management outcomes, but we suggest that different approaches would be needed in natural and modified landscapes.

2022 ◽  
Vivien Rivera ◽  
Liliana Hernandez Gonzalez ◽  
Colleen OBrien ◽  
William Miller ◽  
Aaron Packman

Orhun Soydan ◽  
Nefise Çetin

Urban green spaces are areas established to meet the recreational needs of urban people. Although green spaces vary from country to country and region in terms of plan and design features, they were basically created to allow people to meet with nature. Parks are the basic components of urban landscapes that provide environmental and social functional value. Urban parks, in particular, provide spaces for outdoor physical activities. In order to take advantage of the opportunities of activities in the parks, users must have convenient access to these resources. One of the most important aspects for researching the use and potential benefits of urban green spaces is the assessment of their geographic accessibility. The widespread use of smart city systems and the gradual expansion of their usage areas increase the importance of spatial analysis. Spatial analyses are used in today’s urban management in the processes of determining social needs, identifying current problems, and putting forward solutions. When spatial analyses are used together with GIS, the field of application develops even more, and it supports local governments in responding to the changing demands of the society for a better life. In the study, the adequacy and accessibility of 160 city parks in Konyaaltı District of Antalya Province were examined. In terms of the adequacy of the parks, the area value of 10 m2 per person determined with the Construction Plan numbered 3194 was taken as basis. In terms of accessibility, distance values of 200, 400, 800, 1,200 meters were examined. Neighborhood boundaries and population information were obtained from the relevant units, and Arc-GIS software was used in the analysis. It was determined that the parks in Konyaaltı district were insufficient in terms of adequacy and accessibility. Finally, suggestions were made in terms of increasing the adequacy of the parks and ensuring accessibility.

Ó.M. Chaves ◽  
J.C. Souza Júnior ◽  
G. Buss ◽  
Z.M.B. Hirano ◽  
M.M.A. Jardim ◽  

Galina I. Martsinkevich ◽  
Iryna I. Shchasnaya ◽  
Aliaksandr A. Karpichenka ◽  
Dzmitry S. Varabyou

The problems of the formation of hazardous natural and man-made processes in industrial cities, contributing to the emergence of environmental risks, are presented. To date, an extensive literary material has been accumulated on this problem, concerning the causes of its occurrence, analysis of the patterns of development, and the possibilities of managing risks, including the environmental ones. It has been established that the list of reasons for the formation of risks in cities lacks one of the most important factors that we have discovered – the structure of urban landscapes, which are quite large objects of urban development. To identify the role of these objects in the formation of environmental risks, the cities of Orsha and Pinsk were selected. These cities were laid down almost simultaneously at the beginning of the 11th century, but they have a different history of development. Maps of urban landscapes of cities were compiled, geochemical studies of their soil cover were carried out, geochemical and thermal anomalies of the surface were revealed, the volumes of ecosystem services (carbon absorption) by green spaces were calculated. It was found that urban landscapes perform various functions in the system of environmental risks: some of them contribute to the development of hazardous processes, others – to mitigate them. So, soil pollution with heavy metals (with an excess of the content of Pb, Cr and Cu over the MPC by 1.2–5.6 times in Pinsk), the strongest heating of the surface (8–16 °C higher than the air temperature in Pinsk and Orsha) and low carbon deposition (100–500 t per year) are typical for urban landscapes of the historical center, urban landscapes with a predominance of industrial buildings, urban landscapes for complex residential multi-storey, public and industrial buildings. Urban landscapes, in the structure of which there are elements of landscape and recreational areas of public use (parks, forest parks, squares), as well as agricultural lands and water bodies, are characterised by a low content of heavy metals in soils (below the MPC in Pinsk, below the background in Orsha), low surface temperature (2–3 °C higher than the air temperature), high volume of carbon deposition (2.6–2.8 thsd t per year). An assessment of the probability of risks associated with the described processes was carried out, which helped to find out that they correspond to the categories of «acceptable» and «neglected», options for risk management were proposed.

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